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The most common interpretation of the conjunction ‘and’ in the phrase ‘fiction and film’ is to silently convert it into a preposition; to think of adaptation of novels and short stories into film and TV. Given how many books have served as source texts for visual media, this is hardly surprising. The Russian director Sergei Eisenstein also noted that many of the narrative strategies of nineteenth-century popular novelists had inspired innovative directors such as D. W. Griffith or King Vidor in their development of cinematic techniques such as the close-up, the dissolve, the superimposed shot or montage. In turn, modernist writers learnt from cinematography: think of the scene from Mrs Dalloway (1925) in which the point of view shifts back and forth between the advertising slogan being puffed into the sky by an aeroplane and different individuals on the ground: this is classic intercutting.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages were determined for 10 iron samples from the war booty offering site in the Nydam peat bog (SE Denmark), and compared to archaeologically inferred periods of deposition. Additional 14C measurements were carried out for modern iron standards made with charcoal of known isotopic composition to evaluate possible effects of handling. Modern iron standards give depleted 14C concentrations, compared to the initial charcoal 14C composition, and may indicate carbon fractionation effects during carbon dissolution in the iron lattice. Further studies are needed to verify if this is a common effect during iron production. 14C dating of two swords and one ax head are in comparatively good agreement with expected deposition times and indicate only small old-wood effects. In contrast, 14C dating of iron rivets from the Nydam (B) oak boat proved difficult due to corrosion with siderite (FeCO3) and conservation with wax. A step-combustion procedure was applied, using a low (∼570–600°C) temperature prior to the high (∼970–1000°C) combustion temperature for carbon extraction, aiming to remove siderite and wax before collecting the original carbon dissolved in the iron lattice. Nevertheless, measured 14C ages of the iron rivets differ by about 200–300 years from the dendro-date of the Nydam (B) oak boat they belong to, indicating persisting aging effects (e.g. old-wood, contamination with fossil carbon added during iron making and/or handling prior 14C dating). Also, a possible recycling of older iron cannot be excluded.
Several methods for the routine determination of crystallite size by means of X-ray diffraction line-broadening have previously been reported. Although these techniques have proven useful and reliable when utilized with the single X-ray diffractometer and instrumental geometry used to originally develop the methods, it was not known whether other instruments would provide similar reliability. Therefore a study was performed to evaluate the applicability of routine methods of crystallite size analysis to other X-ray diffraction units. A series of six beryllium oxide powder specimens, whose average crystallite sizes ranged stepwise from about 35 to nearly 3000 Å, were used to test a number of X-ray diffractometers. By using a predetermined diffraction geometry for each instrument tested, measured crystallite sizes were found to be quite reproducible and well within the limits of experimental error. The testing procedure, instrumental conditions, and individual performance results are presented in this paper.
Increasing interest in the sintering characteristics of various ceramic materials has resulted in the need for a knowledge of the crystallite sizes of many constituent ceramic powders. Standard X-ray diffraction line-broadening techniques have been utilized to determine these crystallite sizes. This paper presents a general review of the theory of line broadening as a means of measuring crystallite size and gives the methods and modifications used to perform this type of analysis rapidly and on a routine basis.
Four modifications have been used in the determination of crystallite size routinely by X-ray line broadening. These methods are (1) a graded set of powder photographs, (2) a computer program to calculate sizes from diffractometer data, (3) a set of crystallite-size curves for a given material for use with diffractometer data, and (4) a standard set of curves to use with diffractometer data for any strain-free materials. The preparation, use, and limitations of each of these methods is presented.
To aid in the study of the preparation and properties at BeO, X-ray diffraction investigations were performed to determine the various phases and transformation temperatures occurring in the different BeO calcination processes and to determine the theoretical density of the final BeO product.
The hydroxide, sulfate, and oxalate of beryllium were the starting materials in the three calcination series. The samples studied were prepared by heating small portions of the starting materials for 1 hr at various temperatures and slow cooling. Analysis of the hydroxide series showed a direct conversion from Be(OH)a to BeO by simple loss of water. However, both the sulfate series and the oxalate series go through a series of intermediate phases in transforming to BeO. X-ray data and structure information have been obtained for most of these phases, and temperature ranges of their occurrence have been established.
Wherever possible, the X-ray results have been compared with results of stereoscopic and polarizing microscope examinations, and temperature range of occurrence have been compared with thermal balance curves.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The development of new anti-cancer agents for children requires an inherently longer timeline than in adults. The 3+3 study design for Phase 1 dose escalation trials is commonly used to estimate the maximum tolerated dose and assess safety. The Rolling 6 study design was developed to shorten the study conduct timeline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study compares twenty Phase 1 COG Pilot and Phase 1 Consortium trials that employed the Rolling 6 design with hypothetical results under the assumption that a 3+3 design had been executed. The number of evaluable patients required to complete the study, number of DLTs, number of inevaluable patients, overall study duration, time suspended to enrollment (i.e., waiting for DLT evaluation), and DLT risk are compared between study designs using Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The Rolling 6 study design required less time to complete the studies compared with 3+3 design (median 273 vs. 297 days, P = 0.01). In general, the Rolling 6 study design required more patients, had more inevaluable patients, and there were more dose limiting toxicity (DLT) events. However, there was no significant difference in DLT risk (median 0.15 vs. 0.17, P = 0.72). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The Rolling 6 study design effectively shortens the study conduct timeline compared with the traditional 3+3 design for Phase 1 COG Pilot and Phase 1 Consortium trials without increasing the risk of toxicity.
The current study describes the results obtained from clinical examination of over 4700 suckling piglets from 19 individual herds in Germany. In this cohort the prevalence of inflammation and necrosis in the tails, ears, claw coronary bands, heels and teats was determined using a pre-defined scoring system. Results show that already in the 1st days of life, piglets were affected by inflammation and necrosis of the heels (80%), claw coronary bands (50%) and tail base (20%). The praevalences of these alterations in piglets were influenced by genetics (P <0.001) and age, decreasing gradually in the 2nd week of life (P <0.001). Moreover, a correlation between tail length after tail docking and the prevalence of tail necrosis (P⩽0.04) was found. Tail and ear biting as a behavioural trait was not detected during this study. The early onset, appearance and multiple locations of clinical signs of inflammation and the positive correlation with the genetic background of the piglets may suggest an impairment of the innate immune system by infectious and non-infectious agents. This is in contrast to previously described behavioural abnormalities seen in fattening pigs. Considering the obvious reduction of animal welfare due to the described lesions, there is a need to create awareness among pig farmers and to understand the multifactorial causality involved in this inflammation and necrosis syndrome in piglets.
Intestate succession statutes should reflect the distributive preferences of intestate decedents. To date, these distributive preferences could only be inferred from distributive patterns found in wills. This telephone survey of 750 persons living in Alabama, California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Texas supplements prior will studies and provides new insights concerning public attitudes about property distribution at death. The distributive preferences of the respondents revealed few significant differences that could be attributed to age, education, income, wealth, or occupational status. Two other important findings of this study suggest that a modern intestacy statute should provide that (1) the surviving spouse inherit the entire estate in preference to the decedent's issue or family of orientation and (2) issue who are in the same generation share equally in the estate.
Are people under economic stress more or less likely to vote, and why? With large observational datasets and a survey experiment involving unemployed Americans, we show that unemployment depresses participation. But it does so more powerfully when the unemployment rate is low, less powerfully when it is high. Whereas earlier studies have explained lower turnout among the unemployed by stressing the especially high opportunity costs these would-be voters face, our evidence points to the psychological effects of unemployment and of campaign messages about it. When unemployment is high, challengers have an incentive to blame the incumbent, thus eliciting anger among the unemployed. Psychologists have shown anger to be an approach or mobilizing emotion. When joblessness is low, campaigns tend to ignore it. The jobless thus remain in states of depression and self-blame, which are demobilizing emotions.
Improved control of agency is likely to be a prior and more important function of episodic memory than the epistemic-communicative role pinpointed by Mahr & Csibra (M&C). Taking the memory trace upon which scenario construction is based to be a stored internal model produced in past perceptual processing promises to provide a better account of autonoetic character than metarepresentational embedding.
Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
eROSITA (the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) onboard the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission will perform a deep all-sky X-ray survey. During the first four years of operation the satellite will scan the entire sky every once every half year, visiting any position between 8 and 500 times. The eROSITA scanning strategy will test a wide range of times-scales, from seconds to years, and thus provide a powerful window into the X-ray transient and variable sky. This contribution summarised the key science opportunities for time-domain studies with eROSITA, and presented strategies for finding transients in the all-sky survey data.
Changes in the ice fronts on the Antarctic Peninsula north of 70˚ S are currently being investigated through a comprehensive analysis of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data as part of the international research initiative ‘Global land Ice Measurements from Space’ (GLIMS). Regional case studies are presented that cover a variety of glacial systems distributed over the northern Antarctic Peninsula and provide data on glacier front variations during the period 1986–2002. The results confirm a general trend of regional glacier front recession, but a range of different glacier variations are observed throughout the study area. Areas of predominant retreat are located in the northeastern and southwestern sectors, while stationary ice fronts characterize glacial behaviour on the northwestern coast of the peninsula. In addition, a significant increase in glacier recession is identified on James Ross Island, where retreat rates doubled during the period 1988–2001 compared to the previous investigation period, 1975–88. These observations are interpreted as being direct consequences of the rapidly changing climate in the region, which differentially affects the local accumulation and ablation patterns of the glacial systems.