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The finite element method (FEM) is indispensable in modeling and simulation in various engineering and physical systems, including structural analysis, stress, strain, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, dynamics, eigenproblems, design optimization, sound propagation, electromagnetics, and coupled field problems. Incorporating theory, development of method, and the use of FEM in the commercial sector, this textbook integrates basic theory with real-life, design-oriented problems using ANSYS, the most commonly used computational software in the field. For students as well as practicing engineers and designers, each chapter is highly illustrated and presented in a step-by-step manner. Fundamental concepts are presented in detail with reference to easy to understand worked examples that clearly introduce the method before progressing to more advanced content.Included are step-by-step solutions for project type problems using modelling software, special chapters for modelling and the use of ANSYS and Workbench programs, and extensive sets of problems and projects round out each chapter.
Elucidating fundamental design principles by means of accurate trade-off analysis of relevant design options using suitable mathematical tools, this is the first book to provide a coherent treatment of transmission technologies essential to current and future wireless systems. Develop in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of wireless transmission technologies in supporting high-quality wireless transmission services and foster a thorough understanding of various design trade-offs, to help identify an ideal choice for your own application requirements. Key technologies such as advanced diversity combining, multi-user scheduling, multi-user multi-antenna transmission, relay transmission, and cognitive radio are examined, making this an essential resource for senior graduate students, researchers, and engineers working in wireless communications.
The fundamental algorithms in data mining and machine learning form the basis of data science, utilizing automated methods to analyze patterns and models for all kinds of data in applications ranging from scientific discovery to business analytics. This textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate courses provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of data mining, machine learning and statistics, offering solid guidance for students, researchers, and practitioners. The book lays the foundations of data analysis, pattern mining, clustering, classification and regression, with a focus on the algorithms and the underlying algebraic, geometric, and probabilistic concepts. New to this second edition is an entire part devoted to regression methods, including neural networks and deep learning.
Optical stylets are airway tools, which combine features of fiberoptic bronchoscopes and intubation stylets. These devices use fibers to transmit the image to an eyepiece or camera, which can be attached to the eyepiece for viewing on a monitor. Optical stylets are designed to be used independently, with laryngoscopes, or with SGA devices. There are wide variations in optical stylet length, malleability, and light sources. The common feature of these devises is their light source, which enables the stylet to be used as a lightwand, while the fiberoptic capability enables visualization of the laryngeal inlet.
In this paper, edge-broad-side coupled spiral resonator (EBC-SR) is proposed to enhance the miniaturization of the metamaterial resonators. After a comparative analysis, it is found that the proposed strategy can drastically reduce the electrical size of metamaterial resonators. This is due to the use, at the same time, advantages of edge coupling, broad-side coupling, and self-coupling. A lumped element equivalent circuit model is proposed for the EBC-SR-loaded transmission line. This model is validated by comparing the results of electromagnetic simulations with the circuit simulations using the extracted parameter values. To validate the proposed strategy, a prototype of the EBC-SR embedded inside a drive loop is fabricated. The experimental results are presented with the simulation results.
Even with intensive sampling effort, data often remain sparse when estimating population density of elusive species such as the Sunda clouded leopard Neofelis diardi. An inadequate number of recaptures can make it difficult to account for heterogeneity in detection parameters. We used data from large-scale camera-trapping surveys in three forest reserves in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, to (1) examine whether a high-density camera-trap network increases the number of recaptures for females, which tend to be more difficult to detect, thus improving the accuracy of density estimates; (2) compare density estimates from models incorporating individual heterogeneity in detection parameters with estimates from the null model to evaluate its potential bias; and (3) investigate how the size of the camera-trap grid affects density and movement estimates. We found that individual heterogeneity could not be incorporated in the single-site data analysis and only conservative null model estimates could be generated. However, aggregating data across study sites enabled us to account for individual heterogeneity and we estimated densities of 1.27–2.82 individuals/100 km2, 2–3 times higher than estimates from null models. In light of these findings, it is possible that earlier studies underestimated population density. Similar densities found in well-managed forest and recently selectively logged forest suggest that Sunda clouded leopards are relatively resilient to forest disturbances. Our analysis also revealed that camera-trapping grids for Sunda clouded leopard density estimations should cover large areas (c. 250 km2), although smaller grids could be appropriate if density or detectability are higher.
Wake-up stroke (WUS) or ischemic stroke occurring during sleep accounts for 14%–29.6% of all ischemic strokes. Management of WUS is complicated by its narrow therapeutic time window and attributable risk factors, which can affect the safety and efficacy of administering intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This manuscript will review risk factors of WUS, with a focus on obstructive sleep apnea, potential mechanisms of WUS, and evaluate studies assessing safety and efficacy of IV t-PA treatment in WUS patients guided by neuroimaging to estimate time of symptom onset. The authors used PubMed (1966 to March 2018) to search for the term “Wake-Up Stroke” cross-referenced with “pathophysiology,” ‘‘pathogenesis,” “pathology,” “magnetic resonance imaging,” “obstructive sleep apnea,” or “treatment.” English language Papers were reviewed. Also reviewed were pertinent papers from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts. Studies that focused only on acute Strokes with known-onset of symptoms were not reviewed. Literature showed several potential risk factors associated with increased risk of WUS. Although the onset of WUS is unknown, a few studies investigated the potential benefit of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in estimating the age of onset which encouraged conducting clinical trials assessing the efficacy of MRI-guided thrombolytic therapy in WUS.
Tropical forest regions in equatorial Africa are threatened with degradation, deforestation and biodiversity loss as a result of land-cover change. We investigated historical land-cover dynamics in unprotected forested areas of the Littoral Region in south-western Cameroon during 1975–2017, to detect changes that may influence this important biodiversity and wildlife area. Processed Landsat imagery was used to map and monitor changes in land use and land cover. From 1975 to 2017 the area of high-value forest landscapes decreased by c. 420,000 ha, and increasing forest fragmentation caused a decline of c. 12% in the largest patch index. Conversely, disturbed vegetation, cleared areas and urban areas all expanded in extent, by 32% (c. 400,000 ha), 5.6% (c. 26,800 ha) and 6.6% (c. 78,631 ha), respectively. The greatest increase was in the area converted to oil palm plantations (c. 26,893 ha), followed by logging and land clearing (c. 34,838 ha), all of which were the major factors driving deforestation in the study area. Our findings highlight the increasing threats facing the wider Littoral Region, which includes Mount Nlonako and Ebo Forest, both of which are critical areas for regional conservation and the latter a proposed National Park and the only sizable area of intact forest in the region. Intact forest in the Littoral Region, and in particular at Ebo, merits urgent protection.
Soiling can lead to severe performance losses of photovoltaic (PV) plants. Within this study, three different anti-soiling coatings (ASC) were applied to three different commercial, solar-grade rolled glasses with different surface structures. Laboratory soiling experiments were performed including wind simulation and a novel rotational force test to assess the influence of different surface structures of the glass substrate on the anti-soiling performance of the coatings. A detailed microscopic evaluation indicates a consistent ranking of the ASC with regard to particle resuspension behavior for both test methods and all substrates. Furthermore, the rotational force test yields a quantitative measure of the median force needed for particle removal from the respective coating, which is independent of the glass substrate surface morphology.
This paper investigates the contemporary phenomenon of smuggling sperm from within Israeli jails, which I treat as a biopolitical act of resistance. Palestinian prisoners who have been sentenced to life-imprisonment have recently resorted to delivering their sperm to their distant wives in the West Bank and Gaza where it is then used for artificial insemination. On the level of theory, my analysis of this practice benefits from Jacques Derrida's commentary in The Post Card on imaginative postal delivery of sperm to distant lovers. I use Derrida's heteronormative implication to examine how Palestinian prisoners defy the Israeli carceral system via the revolutionary act of sperm smuggling. The article then argues that smuggling sperm challenges the conventional gender codes in Palestinian society that see women in passive roles. Drawing on Derrida's metaphorical connection between masturbation and writing, I problematize the perception of speech/orality as primary in traditional Palestinian culture. Women, who mostly act as smugglers, become social agents whose written stories of bionational resistance emerge as a dominant mode of representation.
Eating behaviours in childhood are considered as risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and diagnoses in adolescence. However, few longitudinal studies have examined this association.
We investigated associations between childhood eating behaviours during the first ten years of life and eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting and excessive exercise) and diagnoses (anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, purging disorder and bulimia nervosa) at 16 years.
Data on 4760 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were included. Longitudinal trajectories of parent-rated childhood eating behaviours (8 time points, 1.3–9 years) were derived by latent class growth analyses. Eating disorder diagnoses were derived from self-reported, parent-reported and objectively measured anthropometric data at age 16 years. We estimated associations between childhood eating behaviours and eating disorder behaviours and diagnoses, using multivariable logistic regression models.
Childhood overeating was associated with increased risk of adolescent binge eating (risk difference, 7%; 95% CI 2 to 12) and binge eating disorder (risk difference, 1%; 95% CI 0.2 to 3). Persistent undereating was associated with higher anorexia nervosa risk in adolescent girls only (risk difference, 6%; 95% CI, 0 to 12). Persistent fussy eating was associated with greater anorexia nervosa risk (risk difference, 2%; 95% CI 0 to 4).
Our results suggest continuities of eating behaviours into eating disorders from early life to adolescence. It remains to be determined whether childhood eating behaviours are an early manifestation of a specific phenotype or whether the mechanisms underlying this continuity are more complex. Findings have the potential to inform preventative strategies for eating disorders.
Declaration of interest
C.M.B. reports conflict of interest with Shire (grant recipient, Scientific Advisory Board member) and Pearson and Walker (author, royalty recipient). All other authors have indicated they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.