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In the three-phase (pure donor, pure acceptor, and mixed phases) morphologies of organic solar cells, the mixed phases produce an energy cascade that promotes the generation of free carriers. However, how to optimize the content of the mixed phases is a challenging problem. The authors proposed to control different content of mixed phases in DRTB-T and IDIC blends by additive and solvent vapor annealing (SVA). The authors first formed the largest extent amount of mixed phases by the additive cinene (2%) to inhibit the crystallization of DRTB-T and IDIC. And then, different amounts of mixed phases were achieved by further SVA for different times (from 0 to 50 s) to increase the content of pure DRTB-T and IDIC phases. The energetic offsets (ΔE) of pure and mixed phases gradually decrease from 0.529 to 0.477 eV for different content of mixed phases. When ΔE was 0.498 eV, the highest photocurrent density (Jsc) was obtained. The power conversion efficiency was increased from 3.23% (without any treatment) to 8.54%. Therefore, the authors demonstrated that the optimized content of the mixed phases is critical to device performance.
Macro-mesoporous zirconium titanate monoliths have been successfully prepared via a sol–gel process accompanied by phase separation, with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a phase separation inducer and N-methylformamide (NFA) as a gelation accelerator. The size and morphology of macropores are controlled by the PEO and NFA amount. By choosing appropriate starting composition, the co-continuous structure could be obtained. The as-dried gel is amorphous, the pore size is in the range of 0.05–0.5 μm, the porosity is 46%, and the surface area is 111 m2/g. After heat treatment at 500 °C, the gel transforms into the phase ZrTiO4, the macropore diameter decreases slightly, the porosity increases to 63%, and the surface area decreases to 40 m2/g. Moreover, the macroporous structure is well maintained, and the skeleton becomes dense and smooth. The samples have macropores, mesopores, and micropores before and after heat treatment.
The cao vit gibbon Nomascus nasutus, also known as eastern black crested gibbon, is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and was considered one of the world's 25 most threatened primates. The only known population occurs along the border between China and Viet Nam. Accurate information on population size and dynamics is critical for the species’ conservation, but population surveys conducted in only one country may over- or underestimate total population size because the home ranges of cao vit gibbon groups often cross the international border. In 2007 and 2016 we conducted two collaborative transboundary censuses of the cao vit gibbon populations in the Trung Khanh Cao Vit Gibbon Species and Habitat Conservation Area in Viet Nam and the Bangliang Gibbon National Nature Reserve in China. The results showed a population size of 102–110 in 2007, which increased to 107–136 in 2016. Our results indicate that previous surveys conducted separately in Viet Nam and China underestimated the global population size of this species. According to our more comprehensive surveys, the gibbon population is increasing slowly. The gibbons and their habitat are legally protected in both countries. Hunting and charcoal making have not been reported in this area since 2007. As habitat carrying capacity is a limiting factor, habitat restoration is required. However, lack of funding to protect the cao vit gibbon remains a challenge.
Older adults represent the segment of population most exposed to the risk of suicide nearly everywhere in the world. Previous studies showed that hopelessness was an important risk factor for suicide.
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the four-item Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS-4) in psychological autopsy study among Chinese rural elderly.
Two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select research sites. Using case-control psychological autopsy study, face-to-face interviews were conducted to collected information.
A total of 242 elderly suicide deaths and 242 matched living comparisons were investigated, including 135 males and 107 females for each group. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of the controls were 0.682-0.713. The median score of BHS-4 among suicides was significantly higher than that among controls. The corrected correlation coefficient between items and total score were 0.184-0.723. Cronbach’s Alphas coefficient was 0.834. Only one common factor was precipitated by exploratory factor analysis and the cumulative variance contribution rates were 59.558% for suicides and 52.722% for living controls. The correlation coefficient between hopelessness and depression were 0.481 among suicide death and 0.617 among living controls.
The information provided by the informants through psychological autopsy method had high reliability to reflect the actual situation of suicides and controls. BHS-4 has good reliability and validity among Chinese rural elderly suicides. It is suitable for psychological autopsy study among Chinese rural elderly.
The thick sedimentary deposits of the Jiudong subbasin in the western Hexi Corridor of NW China can potentially provide important records of climate change in arid and semiarid areas subject to the interaction of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the westerlies. Here we present the results of a study of the clay mineralogy of the sediments of drill core DWJ from the Jiudong subbasin. The clay minerals consist mainly of illite, followed by chlorite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay mineral assemblages are used to define four paleoclimatic stages since ~1.8 Ma: (1) During ~1.8–1.2 Ma, the climate was relatively cold and arid; (2) during ~1.2–0.9 Ma, it was relatively warm and wet, with strongly seasonal precipitation; (3) during ~0.9–0.3 Ma, there was a long-term trend of cooling and drying; and (4) during ~0.3–0.1 Ma, the climate was warmer and wetter than during the previous period, with strongly seasonal precipitation. The paleoclimatic record of the Jiudong subbasin since ~1.8 Ma is consistent with records from the Tengger Desert and typical monsoonal areas. This suggests that the EASM penetrated into the central regions of the North Qilian Shan and Zhangye–Jiudong subbasin during ~1.2–0.9 and ~0.3–0.1 Ma.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
Fatigue of superelastic Nitinol in the mixed austenite–martensite state was examined in tension using center-tapered dog-bone specimens. A prestraining procedure, mimicking the load history of a medical device component, was applied prior to cycling: specimens were loaded to a fully martensitic state, unloaded partway into the lower plateau to a mixed-phase state, and then subjected to sinusoidal displacement cycles. Strain maps, obtained using digital image correlation, showed substantial variation in local mean and alternating strains across the gage section. In situ surface imaging using a high-speed camera confirmed crack initiation in a narrow transition zone between austenite and martensite that undergoes cyclic stress-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT). Fatigue life data showed an abrupt transition from high-cycle runouts to low-cycle fatigue failures at a stress amplitude level corresponding to the threshold for activating cyclic SIMT. The fatigue threshold can be estimated from the tensile loading–unloading curve.
Phase-change materials (PCMs) have demonstrated a wide range of potential applications ranging from electronic memories to photonic devices. These applications are enabled by the unconventional portfolio of properties that characterizes crystalline PCMs. Here, we address the origin of these unusual properties and how they are related to the application potential of these materials. Evidence will be presented that the properties are related to an unconventional bonding mechanism. Employing a novel map, which separates solids according to the number of electrons transferred and shared between adjacent atoms, it is shown that PCMs occupy a well-defined region. Depicting physical properties such as the optical dielectric constant as the third dimension in the map reveals systematic property trends. Such trends can be utilized to unravel the origins of the unconventional materials properties or alternatively, as a means to optimize them.
While fast-switching rewritable nonvolatile memory units based on phase-change materials (PCMs) are already in production at major technology companies such as Intel (16–64 GB chips are currently available), an in-depth understanding of the physical factors that determine their success is still lacking. Recently, we have argued for a liquid-phase metal-to-semiconductor transition (M-SC), located not far below the melting point, Tm, as essential. The M-SC is itself a consequence of atomic rearrangements that are involved in a fragile-to-strong viscosity transition that controls both the speed of crystallization and the stabilization of the semiconducting state. Here, we review past work and introduce a new parameter, the “metallicity” (inverse of the average Pauling electronegativity of a multicomponent alloy). When Tm-scaled temperatures of known M-SCs of Group IV, V, and VI alloys are plotted against their metallicities, the curvilinear plot leads directly to the composition zone of all known PCMs and the temperature interval below Tm, where the transition should occur. The metallicity concept could provide guidance for tailoring PCMs.
High-current switching performance of ovonic threshold switching (OTS) selectors have successfully enabled the commercialization of high-density three-dimensional (3D) stackable phase-change memory in Intel’s 3D Xpoint technology. This bridges the huge performance gap between dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and Flash. Similar to phase-change memory, OTS uses chalcogenide-based materials, but whereas phase-change memory reversibly switches between a high-resistance amorphous phase and a low-resistance crystalline phase, OTS freezes in the amorphous phase. In this article, we review recent developments in OTS materials and their performance in devices, especially current density and selectivity. Advantages and challenges of OTS devices in the integration with the phase-change memory are discussed. We introduce the evolution of theoretical models for explaining the OTS behavior, including thermal runaway, field-induced nucleation, and generation/recombination of charge carriers.