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To assess the effect of tranexamic acid in head and neck surgical procedures.
A prospective, double-blind and randomised, parallel group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-two patients undergoing various head and neck surgical procedures were randomised. Subjects received seven infusions of coded drugs (tranexamic acid or normal saline) starting at the time of skin closure. Haematological, biochemical, blood loss and other parameters were observed by the staff, who were blinded to patients’ group allocation (case or control).
Patients were analysed on the basis of type of surgery. Fifty patients who had undergone surgical procedures, including total thyroidectomy, total parotidectomy, and various neck dissections with or without primary tumour excision, were included in the first group. The second group comprised 41 patients who had undergone hemithyroidectomy, lobectomy or superficial parotidectomy. There was no statistical difference in blood parameters between both groups. There was a reduction in post-operative drain volume, but this was not significant.
Although this prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial found a reduction in post-operative drain volume in tranexamic acid groups, the difference was not statistically significant between the various head and neck surgical procedure groups.
To assess cardiac functions in adenotonsillar or tonsillar hypertrophy.
A prospective, interventional, academic centre based study was conducted on 25 children with adenotonsillar or tonsillar hypertrophy. All patients underwent pulsed 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiography, pulse oximetry and 12-lead electrocardiography. These assessments were repeated three months later to determine the impact of adenotonsillectomy.
There were significant differences in mean arterial oxygen saturation, pulmonary flow acceleration time and mean pulmonary artery pressure post-operatively. Adenotonsillectomy led to significant improvements in pulmonary flow acceleration time and pulmonary flow velocity time index, while tonsillectomy resulted in right ventricular early and late diastolic velocity index improvement.
Upper airway obstruction in children affects cardiac functioning and this can subsequently lead to morbidity and delayed growth. Hence, revision of surgical indications is advocated in adenotonsillar hypertrophy to avoid irreversible damage to cardiopulmonary functions.
Homozygous homeobox A1 (HOXA1) mutations cause a spectrum of abnormalities in humans including bilateral profound deafness. This study evaluates the possible role of HOXA1 mutations in familial, non-syndromic sensorineural deafness.
Forty-eight unrelated Middle Eastern families with either consanguinity or familial deafness were identified in a large deafness clinic, and the proband from each family was evaluated by chart review, audiogram, neuroimaging, and HOXA1 sequencing.
All 48 probands had normal neuro-ophthalmologic and general medical examinations except for refractive errors. All had congenital non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss that was symmetric bilaterally and profound (>90 dBHL) in 33 individuals and varied from 40 to 90 dBHL in the remainder. Thirty-nine of these individuals had neuroimaging studies, all documenting normal internal carotid arteries and normal 6th, 7th, and 8th cranial nerves bilaterally. Of these, 27 had normal internal ear structures with the remaining 12 having mild to modest developmental abnormalities of the cochlea, semicircular canals, and/or vestibular aqueduct. No patient had homozygous HOXA1 mutations.
None of these patients with non-syndromic deafness had HOXA1 mutations. None had major inner ear anomalies, obvious cerebrovascular defects, or recognized congenital heart disease. HOXA1 is likely not a common cause of non-syndromic deafness in this Middle Eastern population.
To evaluate the effect of different lipid fractions on auditory brainstem evoked responses in hyperlipidaemia.
We conducted a single institution (medical college), prospective, cross-sectional study of 25 hyperlipidaemic patients and 25 normolipidaemic controls, all with a normal hearing threshold on pure tone audiometry. Brainstem evoked response audiometry results were recorded in both groups. The hyperlipidaemic group were further divided into two subgroups, based on the serum value of each lipid fraction: those with less than and those with greater than the mean serum value. These two subgroups were further compared with the control group.
The hyperlipidaemic and normolipidaemic groups had statistically significant differences for all audiometry waves apart from the wave I and the III–V interpeak latencies. The subgroups had a statistically significant difference in brainstem evoked responses. We found a statistically significant association between low-density lipoproteins and many waveforms in the hyperlipidaemic group.
We found that low-density lipoproteins were significantly associated with many waveforms in hyperlipidaemic patients. Thus, low-density lipoproteins may be important in auditory dysfunction.
This paper presents an investigation into the utilisation of sequential and parallel processing techniques for the real-time simulation of a flexible manipulator system. A finite
dimensional simulation of the system is developed using a finite difference approximation to the governing dynamic equation of the manipulator. The developed algorithm is implemented on a number of uni-processor and multi-processor, homogeneous and heterogeneous, parallel architectures. A comparison of the results of these implementations is made and discussed, on the basis of real-time processing requirements in the simulation and control of flexible manipulator systems.
Nanoparticles of ZnS and Mn-doped ZnS capped with TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) and close to mono-dispersed have been prepared by a single source route using bis(diethyldithiocarbamato) zinc(II) as a precursor. The nanoparticles obtained show quantum size effects in their optical spectra and ZnS nanoparticles exhibit near band-edge luminescence. Clear difference in photoluminescence results between ZnS and ZnS:Mn samples. Changes in Mn-doping levels are shown by the changes in photoluminescence intensity. The most intense photoluminescence was observed for 1% and the least intense for 5% doping level. ESR spectra and ICP results confirm the presence of Mn in ZnS quantum dots and also correspond to the amount of Mn in each ZnS:Mn sample.
The Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) show the material to be of the hexagonal phase. The crystallinity of the material was also evident from High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) which gave well-defined images of nanosize particles with clear lattice fringes.
Good quality, close to mono-dispersed, nanoparticles of CuSe and CuInSe2 have been prepared from thermolysis reactions in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Bis(diethyldiselenocarbamato)-copper(II) ([Cu(Se2CNEt2] )2») was used to prepare CuSe and TOPSe, CuCI and InCl3 were reacted to form CuInSe2. HRTEM images showed that the particles have reasonable monodispersity and are crystalline. Clear lattice fringes were observed in single dots of CuInSe2 (ca. 4 nm) and CuSe (ca. 16 nm). The particles are capped with TOPO and the SAED pattern showed cubic CuInSe2 and hexagonal CuSe.
This paper presents the design and development of a laboratory facility
constituting a constrained planar flexible manipulator system. The system is
designed for experimental investigations within research programmes involving
flexible manipulator systems. An outline of a generic design procedure for
flexible manipulator systems is given. The design criteria developed through
this procedure account for the strength and stiffness of the manipulator and the
required transducers and instrumentation. These are considered in detail and the
system designed accordingly. Finally, practical problems encountered are
highlighted and methods of dealing with such problems are presented and
This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations into modelling a single-link flexible manipulator system. An analytical model of the manipulator, characterised by an infinite number of modes, is developed using the Lagrange's equation and modal expansion method. This is used to develop equivalent time-domain and frequency-domain working models of the system in state-space and transfer function forms respectively. The model parameters are then estimated experimentally using system's measured input/output data. The model thus obtained is validated through experimentation and results including the effect of payload on system characteristics presented and discussed.
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