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The Hebrew Bible is permeated with depictions of military conflicts that have profoundly shaped the way many think about war. Why does war occupy so much space in the Bible? In this book, Jacob Wright offers a fresh and fascinating response to this question: War pervades the Bible not because ancient Israel was governed by religious factors (such as “holy war”) or because this people, along with its neighbors in the ancient Near East, was especially bellicose. Instead, the reason is rather that the Bible is fundamentally a project of constructing a new national identity for Israel, one that can both transcend deep divisions within the population and withstand military conquest by imperial armies. Drawing on the intriguing interdisciplinary research on war commemoration, Wright shows how biblical authors, like the architects of national identities from more recent times, constructed identity in direct relation to memories of war, both real and imagined. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
is a closed orientable graph manifold, we show that
admits a coorientable taut foliation if and only if
is not an L-space. Combined with previous work of Boyer and Clay, this implies that
is an L-space if and only if
is not left-orderable.
Cardiac surgical interventions for children with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 remain controversial, despite growing evidence that definitive cardiac repair prolongs survival. Understanding quality of life for survivors and their families therefore becomes crucial. Study objective was to generate a descriptive summary of parental perspectives on quality of life, family impact, functional status, and hopes for children with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 who have undergone heart surgery.
A concurrent mixed method approach utilising PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Parent Report for Toddlers or the PedsQL™ Infant Scale, PedsQL™ 2.0 Family Impact Module, Functional Status Scale, quality of life visual analogue scale, and narrative responses for 10 children whose families travelled out of state to access cardiac surgery denied to them in their home state due to genetic diagnoses.
Parents rated their child’s quality of life as 80/100, and their own quality of life as 78/100 using validated scales. Functional status was rated 11 by parents and 11.6 by providers (correlation 0.89). On quality of life visual analogue scale, all parents rated their child’s quality of life as “high” with mean response 92.7/100. Parental hopes were informed by realistic perspective on prognosis while striving to ensure their children had access to reaching their full potential. Qualitative analysis revealed a profound sense of the child’s relationality and valued life meaning.
Understanding parental motivations and perceptions on the child’s quality of life has potential to inform care teams in considering cardiac interventions for children with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13.
We present a new method for generating robust guesses for unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) by post-processing turbulent data using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). The approach relies on the identification of near-neutral, repeated harmonics in the DMD eigenvalue spectrum from which both an estimate for the period of a nearby UPO and a guess for the velocity field can be constructed. In this way, the signature of a UPO can be identified in a short time series without the need for a near recurrence to occur, which is a considerable drawback to recurrent flow analysis, the current state of the art. We first demonstrate the method by applying it to a known (simple) UPO and find that the period can be reliably extracted even for time windows of length one quarter of the full period. We then turn to a long turbulent trajectory, sliding an observation window through the time series and performing many DMD computations. Our approach yields many more converged periodic orbits (including multiple new solutions) than a standard recurrent flow analysis of the same data. Furthermore, it also yields converged UPOs at points where the recurrent flow analysis flagged a near recurrence but the Newton solver did not converge, suggesting that the new approach can be used alongside the old to generate improved initial guesses. Finally, we discuss some heuristics on what constitutes a ‘good’ time window for the DMD to identify a UPO.
This chapter introduces the research background and application of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with older adults. First, an overview of the research literature is presented. Second, the theoretical framework underlying CBT is summarized with a focus on proposed agents of change. Third, research on patient selection, treatment modalities, and special topics is reviewed. Fourth, a session-by-session tutorial on the components of CBT from intake to treatment termination is provided. A case example is included along with several other cases to illustrate therapeutic techniques. Further readings, resources, and trainings are included at the end of the chapter.
To investigate the effects of providing free fruit and snack vegetables at a university on students’ fruit intake, snack vegetable intake and total vegetable intake.
Free fruit and raw snack vegetables (e.g. bite-sized tomatoes) were provided in a stand in the form of a miniature wooden house located in the central hall of the university’s main building, which students regularly pass through on their way to lectures and the cafeteria. Three interventions tested with a pre-test/post-test design were performed. In these three interventions, small changes to the appearance of the stand were made, such as placing potted plants around it. Demographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable intakes were assessed with questionnaires.
A Dutch university of applied science.
Intervention 1 included 124 students; Intervention 2 included ninety-two students; Intervention 3 included 237 students.
Longitudinal linear regression analyses showed that post-test snack vegetable intake was consistently higher compared with pre-test. In the three interventions, post-test snack vegetable intakes were between 11 and 14 g/d higher than at the pre-test, which is comparable to three bite-sized tomatoes. No differences in fruit intake or total vegetable intake were found. Subgroup analyses showed that, in all three interventions, students with the lowest pre-test fruit intake and total vegetable intake reported the largest increase in fruit intake and snack vegetable intake after the interventions.
Providing free fruit and vegetables to students at their university might be beneficial for those with low habitual intakes.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Neonates are at high risk of bleeding after open-heart surgery. We sought to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors for increased bleeding after neonatal open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of neonates (0–30 days old) who underwent open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from January, 2009, to March, 2013. Cardiac diagnosis; demographic and surgical data; and blood products, haemostatic agents, and anti-thrombotic agents administered before, during, and within 24 hours after surgery were abstracted from the electronic health record and anaesthesia records. The outcome of interest was chest tube output (in ml/kg body weight) within 24 hours. Relationships between chest tube output and putative associated factors were evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression.
The cohort consisted of 107 neonates, of whom 79% had a Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (STAT) Mortality Category of 4 or 5. Median chest tube output was 37 ml/kg (range 9–655 ml/kg). Age, African-American race, and longer durations of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass each had statistically significant associations with increased chest tube output in unadjusted analyses. In multivariable analysis, African-American race retained an independent, statistically significant association with increased chest tube output; the geometric mean of chest tube output among African-American neonates was 71% higher than that of Caucasians (95% confidence interval, 29–125%; p = 0.001).
Among neonates with CHD undergoing open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, African-American race is independently associated with greater chest tube output over the first 24 hours post-operatively.
Focusing on H. G. Wells’s scientific romances, “The Technology Age” argues that the volatile modernity of Wells’s fiction pivots on a failure of sympathy between the young and the old. This failure generates the deeply ambivalent conditions by which generational antagonism arises alongside modernity’s technological and social progress. Drawing on the work of Charles Booth and tracts by the Fabian society, I illustrate how socialist arguments for a universal pension depend upon youths imagining the older person they one day will become. Analyzing works such as The Time Machine, War of the Worlds, Food of the Gods, and In the Days of the Comet, this chapter highlights the multitemporality of the banal process of aging. In this regard, science fiction provides insight into the reality of aging in a way that conventional literary realism cannot.
In my fourth chapter on Thomas Hardy’s The Well-Beloved, “A Wrinkle in Time,” I argue that the sexual escapades of an aging artist subvert the naturalist plot of decline. Instead of modeling the human lifespan on a parabola that begins with youthful possibility, reaches its apex in adulthood, and declines into senescence and death, The Well-Beloved demonstrates the opening of queer, non-normative desire as one ages. This chapter examines the discourses of evolutionary biology and geology as providing the late-nineteenth century with non-linear models for the human lifespan. These scientific models, I argue, have a narrative counterpart in the counterfactual, or the imagination of what might have occurred in the past but did not. The use of counterfactual thinking in narrative enables Hardy to construct an ambivalent attitude toward the aging of his protagonist, who inverts the horizon of possibility away from the future toward a past that he struggles to remake.
The chapter “Aging Theory” makes three related points about the intersection of narrative, time, and aging. First, it draws on the idea of surface reading to argue for renewed attention to the effects of aging. By drawing aging to the surface of the body and its representation in the novel, this approach resists the modern tendency of repressing the duration of aging. The second section draws together the diachronic analyses of narrative theory with the metaphysics of Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze, contending that the reader’s temporal encounter with the materiality of a text’s discourse serves as a tacit reminder of the reader’s own aging. By doing so, narrative temporality reflects to the reader the very duration that falls out of his or her experience of aging. The final section suggests that the novel’s realism naturalizes a crisis model of character development by positing life-changing events as a part of “everyday” reality. As realism relies upon a model of change where duration surprisingly disappears, it diminishes the role of aging in the development of subjectivity over time.
The sixth chapter, “Gray Modernism,” argues that modernist experimentation with narrative form draws theoretical and disciplinary inspiration from the invention of gerontology and geriatrics as a science. During the twentieth century, aging becomes the subject of clinical interest, a temporal pathology detachable from the body it affects. Similarly, for modernist novels like Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, duration becomes separable from the highly charged aesthetic moments it contains. Though Orlando lives through many centuries, she does not grow old; instead, her greatest transformation occurs when her gender instantaneously switches from male to female. The novel creates a divide between the systems of duration and aging on the one hand, and the momentariness and constructedness of identity on the other. By breaking with the conventions that link duration and objective, shared time, Woolf situates aging in an ironic temporality that disrupts the forward press of years.
The book begins by outlining the representational problem of aging. Across the realist novel, the duration of aging falls out of the attempt to represent it, greatly accelerating the process of aging or writing the passage of years on the body all at once. By doing so, the novel map bodily development and decline onto the temporalities of nineteenth-century British modernity. Subsequent chapters chart this representational problem through a historical narrative that begins from the New Poor Law in 1834 to the 1860s. The pervasive optimism of these years was made possible, in part, by excluding old age from the plots novelists used to represent era. The second part turns to the growing pessimism at the end of the Victorian period, which arises not from marginalizing old age, but from using it as a figure for an exhausted century. While this has the effect of making old age central to fin-de-siècle narratives, senescence also gains new, negative connotations. Through this argument, Aging, Duration, and the English Novel aims to reorient the field age studies away from the implicit stasis of a term like “age” toward the temporal dynamism of “aging studies.”
“No Plots for Old Men” argues that aging raised a problem for Charles Dickens’s literary project: the novel’s difficulty of representing temporal continuity over long spans of time. For the old man, the meaningful plots of the nineteenth century—such as the bildungsroman or the marriage plot—are behind him. An object of little narrative interest from the perspective of these plots, the old man is continually activated in Dickens’s novels, setting up a competition between the natural death he staves off and the closure of the narrative in which he is enmeshed. By examining three of Dickens’s early novels, this chapter shows how old men are excluded from the youthful plot of development central to the progress of a modernizing society. No longer the subject of the plot and yet bound by ambition, the elderly male engages in a narrative compulsion that underlines the imaginative power of what has been left behind by both the realist novel and the modernity it represents. By doing so, the old man serves as the site through which Dickens addresses an impasse of the novel form, where its duration is marked by its inability to faithfully represent the texture of passing time.