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Native to southeast Asia, the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura); Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become a major pest of small fruits in the Americas and Europe. Field studies were conducted over a two-year period (2015–2016) in cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus; Ericaceae) fields and adjacent non-crop habitats containing wild blueberries in New Jersey (United States of America). We tracked seasonal changes in D. suzukii adult abundance and fruit infestation throughout the ripening period (June–August). In both years, D. suzukii adult counts post-harvest were generally higher in traps located in non-crop habitats compared with those located in highbush blueberry fields. Wild and cultivated fruits synchronised in maturation, and the numbers of eggs laid and of emerged adults in both fruit types were comparable for most of the season, although sometimes these numbers were higher in wild fruits post-harvest. Overall, immature success (measured as the per cent egg-to-adult survival) was also mostly higher in wild than in cultivated fruits. Altogether, these studies document that non-crop habitats, and wild hosts therein, are used by D. suzukii during fruit ripening and may serve as potential sources of infestation to nearby highbush blueberry fields. Hence, methods that reduce D. suzukii populations in non-crop habitats may help manage this pest in neighbouring highbush blueberries.
In her stinging critique of eighteenth-century writers on women’s education for “render[ing] women objects of pity, bordering on contempt,” Mary Wollstonecraft singles out Hester Chapone’s Letters on the Improvement of the Mind Addressed to a Young Lady as an exception, paying the work a “tribute of respect” for its “good sense, and unaffected humility, and … many useful observations.”1 Chapone’s Letters, first published in 1773 and republished or reprinted at least seventy times through to the middle of the nineteenth century,2 arose materially and intellectually out of her participation in the collective that has come to be called the Bluestockings. This chapter begins with brief sketches of three “first-generation” Bluestocking women as a means of identifying characteristic features of this eighteenth-century movement. I then review the Bluestockings’ influential model of sociability and their commitments to a rational and benevolent social order and to female education, before suggesting their complicated contribution to the British imagination of womanhood as the nation moved into the contested political territory of the end of the century. Chapone’s Bluestocking life and her resulting Letters serve as useful orientation points to this important context for Wollstonecraft’s thoughts on the nature of woman, women’s societal role, and the ideal education for that role.
Research exploring the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has documented four modal trajectories (low, remitting, high, and delayed), with proportions varying across studies. Heterogeneity could be due to differences in trauma types and patient demographic characteristics.
This analysis pooled data from six longitudinal studies of adult survivors of civilian-related injuries admitted to general hospital emergency departments (EDs) in six countries (pooled N = 3083). Each study included at least three assessments of the clinician-administered PTSD scale in the first post-trauma year. Latent class growth analysis determined the proportion of participants exhibiting various PTSD symptom trajectories within and across the datasets. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined demographic characteristics, type of event leading to the injury, and trauma history as predictors of trajectories differentiated by their initial severity and course.
Five trajectories were found across the datasets: Low (64.5%), Remitting (16.9%), Moderate (6.7%), High (6.5%), and Delayed (5.5%). Female gender, non-white race, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries were associated with increased risk for initial PTSD reactions. Female gender and assaultive injuries were associated with risk for membership in the Delayed (v. Low) trajectory, and lower education, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries with risk for membership in the High (v. Remitting) trajectory.
The results suggest that over 30% of civilian-related injury survivors admitted to EDs experience moderate-to-high levels of PTSD symptoms within the first post-trauma year, with those reporting assaultive violence at increased risk of both immediate and longer-term symptoms.
Bovine κ-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) found in cheese whey is a sialylated phosphorylated peptide which is thought to be a potential ingredient for functional food as well as dietetic food. This study was undertaken to determine whether high purity GMP can be isolated from soluble whey fraction (SWF) using column chromatography on food grade anion exchange resin and chitin as an adsorbent. Samples of commercially available anion exchange resin (resin A, resin B and resin C) and those of chitin (chitin A, chitin B and chitin C) were examined in this experiment. The GMP fraction obtained from each column was analyzed for amino acid composition which reflects the purity of the peptide. Major findings for commercial anion exchange resin were that: (1) the proportion of GMP monitored as sialic acid in total recovered sialic acid was similar among the three samples of resin accounting for average 78% of recovered sialic acid; (2) the GMP fraction from resin A or resin B contained undetectable level of contaminating amino acids including phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and tyrosine; (3) the GMP fraction from resin C contained small amounts (<1 mol%) of contaminating amino acids, arginine, phenylalanine and tyrosine; and (4) the GMP binding capacity expressed as mg/100 mg dry weight of resin was more than 2.5 times higher in resin C (average 22.9) than in resin A or resin B with no difference between resin A and resin B averaging 8.7. Results obtained for chitin A, chitin B and chitin C were in general similar to those found with resin A and resin B. Since chitin has a remarkable GMP binding capacity averaging 8.6 mg/100 mg dry weight of chitin, it may be a useful adsorbent for whey fractionation. Further research is needed to develop an efficient inexpensive method to purify GMP.
To explore factors that minimize lunch waste in Tokyo elementary schools and to consider how such factors can be modified and applied in US schools.
Focused ethnographic study using interviews, observation, participant observation and document review. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Five school dietitians participated in the study. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews, observation of nutrition education lessons, participant observation of school lunchtime and review of relevant school documents (e.g. lunch menus, food waste records).
Five themes emerged from the analysis: (i) reinforcement of social norms to eat without waste; (ii) menu planning to increase exposure to unfamiliar and/or disliked foods; (iii) integration of food and nutrition education into the school curriculum; (iv) teacher lunchtime practices related to portion sizes, distributing leftover food and time management; and (v) engagement of students in reducing school lunch waste. Practical and tangible applications to US schools include measuring and reporting lunch waste to influence social norms, teaching students about the importance of reducing food waste, offering flexible school lunch portion sizes and providing students with meaningful opportunities to contribute to solving the problem of school lunch waste.
Japan offers a model for minimizing school lunch waste through a holistic approach that includes factors that operate at and interact across multiple levels of society. Modifying and applying such an approach in US schools is worth considering given the urgent need to address food waste in order to support healthy diets and sustainable food systems.
Compared to active ideation, passive ideation remains relatively understudied and its clinical importance poorly defined. The weight that should be accorded passive ideation in clinical risk assessment is therefore unclear.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of passive ideation, its psychiatric comorbidity, associated sociodemographic characteristics, as well as psychological and environmental correlates. For reference, pooled effects were also calculated for direct comparisons of passive and active ideation with respect to potential correlates. Relevant articles published since inception to 9 September 2019 were identified through a systematic search of MEDLINE and PsycINFO.
A total of 86 studies were included in this review. The prevalence of passive ideation was high across sample types, ranging from 5.8% for 1-year prevalence to 10.6% for lifetime prevalence in the general population. Passive ideation was strongly associated with sexual minority status, psychiatric comorbidity, psychological characteristics implicated in risk, and suicide attempts. Preliminary evidence exists for a large association with suicide deaths. The effect sizes for individual correlates of passive and active ideation were largely equivalent and mostly non-significant in head-to-head comparisons.
Passive ideation is a prevalent clinical phenomenon associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Current evidence also suggests notable similarities exist between passive and active ideation in terms of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological and other characteristics traditionally associated with risk.
Survivors of natural disasters are at risk for mental health sequela, including deficits in neurocognitive functioning. This study explores links between hurricane exposure and resulting psychiatric symptoms and deficits in cognitive processing, attention, learning, and memory.
Relocated Katrina survivors and demographically matched controls completed neurocognitive tests assessing processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A), mental flexibility (Trail Making Test, Part B), sustained attention (Conner’s Continuous Performance Test), and learning and memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test). PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and depressive symptoms (BDI- II) were also measured.
Survivors had more PTSD and depression symptoms and weaker performance in cognitive processing, mental flexibility, and sustained attention, but not memory and learning compared to controls. When controlling for depression and PTSD symptoms (analysis of covariances), only CPT-II response time remained significantly different for survivors, so that sustained attention deficits were independent of emotional symptoms.
Survivors had more psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunctions than controls in most assessed measures. Our study had mixed results in identifying cognitive deficits related to psychopathology. Results suggest that disaster survivors, even those without psychopathology, should be assessed for cognitive issues that may affect their ability to process post-disaster instructions and access assistance in recovery efforts.
Numerous interventions to address posttraumatic stress (PTS) in youth exposed to mass trauma have been delivered and evaluated. It remains unclear, however, which interventions work for whom and under what conditions. This report describes a meta-analysis of the effect of youth mass-trauma interventions on PTS to determine if interventions were superior to inactive controls and describes a moderator analysis to examine whether the type of event, population characteristics, or income level of the country where the intervention was delivered may have affected the observed effect sizes. A comprehensive literature search identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of youth mass-trauma interventions relative to inactive controls. The search identified 2,232 references, of which 25 RCTs examining 27 trials (N = 4,662 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. Intervention effects were computed as Hedge’s g estimates and combined using a random effects model. Moderator analyses were conducted to explain the observed heterogeneity among effect sizes using the following independent variables: disaster type (political violence versus natural disaster); sample type (targeted versus non-targeted); and income level of the country where the intervention was delivered (high- versus middle- versus low-income). The correlation between the estimates of the intervention effects on PTS and on functional impairment was estimated. The overall treatment effect size was converted into a number needed to treat (NNT) for a practical interpretation. The overall intervention effect was statistically significant (g = 0.57; P < .0001), indicating that interventions had a medium beneficial effect on PTS. None of the hypothesized moderators explained the heterogeneity among the intervention effects. Estimates of the intervention effects on PTS and on functional impairment were positively correlated (Spearman’s r = 0.90; P < .0001), indicating a concomitant improvement in both outcomes. These findings confirm that interventions can alleviate PTS and enhance functioning in children exposed to mass trauma. This study extends prior research by demonstrating improvement in PTS with interventions delivered to targeted and non-targeted populations, regardless of the country income level. Intervention populations and available resources should be considered when interpreting the results of intervention studies to inform recommendations for practice.
Recent reforms in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, prioritise adoption over long-term foster care. While previous research has examined motivation to foster, less is known about the interest by the general public in adoption from out-of-home care. A general sample of the NSW public (N = 1030) completed an online survey about adoption practices and their willingness to consider adopting from out-of-home care, with background questions on perceived social support and life satisfaction. Barriers to pursuing adoption were identified, including concerns about the characteristics of the child related to their experiences of care and personal impacts including financial costs. Availability of post-adoption supports was viewed positively as increasing interest in adoption. General Linear Model univariate analyses identified that likelihood of considering adoption was primarily predicted by younger age, knowing someone who had been adopted as a child, actively practicing religion, living in the city rather than a regional area and higher life satisfaction. Customised marketing campaigns can target people more likely to consider adoption, with messages that resonate with their social and psychological characteristics. There is also a need for policy changes to ensure adequate provision of post-adoption support.
The aim of this study was to (1) understand types and amounts of Ebola-related information that health organization employees wanted and obtained through formal, informal, internal, and external organizational communication channels; (2) determine potential discrepancies between information wanted and obtained; and (3) investigate how organizational structure might affect information wanted and obtained through these communication channels.
Primary data were collected from 526 health workers in 9 hospitals and 13 public health departments in Texas from June to November 2015. Survey data were collected for 7 types of Ebola-related information health organization employees wanted and obtained through various types of organizational communication channels. Descriptive statistical analyses, mixed design analysis of variance, regression analyses, and multilevel analyses were used to analyze the data.
Hospital employees (mostly nurses in our sample) received more self-care information than they wanted from every communication channel. However, they received less about all other types of information than they wanted from every communication channel separately and combined. Public health department employees wanted more information than they received from every communication channel separately and combined for all 7 types of information.
Discrepancies existed between the types of Ebola-related information wanted and obtained by employees of hospitals and public health departments.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
We shall next declare the occasion and the cause which moved our poet to this particular work. He lived in those days, when (after Providence had permitted the invention of printing as a scourge for the sins of the learned) paper also became so cheap, and printers so numerous, that a deluge of authors covered the land: […] At the same time, the licence of the press was such, that it grew dangerous to refuse them either [applause or money]; for they would forthwith publish slanders unpunished, the authors being anonymous, and skulking under the wings of publishers. (Alexander Pope, “Martinus Scriblerus of the Poem,” The Dunciad, 1728)
Over the past several years there has been considerable interest in the relation between emotion dysregulation and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), particularly given that rates of NSSI have been increasing and NSSI is a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. To date, however, no synthesis of empirical findings exists.
The present study presents a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the literature on the association between NSSI and emotion dysregulation. A total of 48 publications, including 49 independent samples, were included in this analysis.
Overall, a significant association was found between emotion dysregulation and NSSI (pooled OR = 3.03 [95% CI = 2.56–3.59]). This association was reduced but remained significant (OR = 2.40 [95% CI = 2.01–2.86]) after adjustment for publication bias. Emotion dysregulation subscales most strongly associated with NSSI included limited access to regulation strategies, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, and difficulties engaging goal-directed behavior. Lack of emotional awareness/clarity and cognitive aspects of dysregulation yielded weaker, yet significant, positive associations with NSSI.
Findings support the notion that greater emotion dysregulation is associated with higher risk for NSSI among individuals across settings, regardless of age or sex. Furthermore, findings reveal facets of dysregulation that may have unique implications for NSSI. This meta-analysis highlights the importance of better understanding emotion dysregulation as a treatment target for preventing NSSI.
We explore the meaning of parochialism (xiao nong yi shi, 小农意识) to explain certain paradoxical Chinese managerial behaviors. We discuss how cultural, political, and economic traditions in China formed a salient context to cultivate parochialism. Qualitative data from Chinese and American managers reveal that the conceptual framework of parochialism includes a cognitive dimension of closed-mindedness, a behavioral dimension of self-protection, and a relational dimension of in-group focused social relationship. Parochialism hampers effective globalization of Chinese firms because it negatively impacts key facets of organizational culture: employee development, communication, customer orientation, social responsibility, strategic planning, and innovation. The study offers theoretical and practical implications for Chinese management research and the development of global competence.
The 4th International Polar Year featured a range of large international research projects and included a focus on Education and Public Outreach (EPO). ANDRILL (the ANtarctic geological DRILLing Project) was a large international (USA, New Zealand, Italy, Germany) multidisciplinary research project investigating the sedimentary record of Cenozoic ice sheet dynamics that brought approximately 160 scientists to McMurdo Station in the 2006 and 2007 field seasons, during which two > 1000 m sediment cores were successfully retrieved from the floor of the Ross Sea. ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators), the EPO arm of ANDRILL, deployed an international team of six to eight educators each season to Antarctica and embedded them with science teams. ARISE was unique in the EPO spectrum because it deployed a team of international educators together with an EPO coordinator, offered an on-ice geoscience course for the educators, and supported educator participation at both pre-ice and post-ice meetings. Conservative estimates indicate that at least 314,700 individuals have been reached directly through the wide range of ARISE EPO endeavours.
Educator field research immersion is a small subset of educator professional development (PD) opportunities, with little quantitative or qualitative evaluation of polar immersion experiences having been reported. Here, surveys of ARISE educators and scientists are used to evaluate the efficacy of the ARISE program as PD in the context of research on educator PD. Persistent and recurring themes emerging from the surveys are: (1) the positive and reinforcing impact of deployment as a team; (2) the importance of access to scientists across an extended period of time and venues; (3) the importance of ‘doing science’ as a means of learning; and (4) recognition of the senses of excitement, engagement and inspiration displayed by both educators and scientists − about drilling progress, core interpretation, and outreach plans – and the EPO audience. Key components of the program are shown to be (1) deployment of a multi-educator team; and (2) guidance and support of the EPO coordinator at all phases of the ARISE experience.
The World Health Organization recently reported that maternal mental health is a major public health concern. As many as one in four women suffer from psychiatric disorders at some point during pregnancy or the first postpartum year. Furthermore, self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) represent one of the leading causes of death among women during this time. Thus, efforts to identify women at risk for serious forms of psychopathology and especially for SITBs are of utmost importance. Despite this urgency, current single-diagnostic approaches fail to recognize a significant subset of women who are vulnerable to perinatal stress and distress. The current study was among the first to investigate emotion dysregulation—a multilevel, transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology—and its associations with stress, distress, and SITBs in a sample of pregnant women (26–40 weeks gestation) recruited to reflect a range of emotion dysregulation. Both self-reported emotion dysregulation and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, demonstrated expected associations with measures of mental health, including depression, anxiety, borderline personality pathology, and SITBs. In addition, self-reported emotion dysregulation was associated with blunted respiratory sinus arrhythmia responsivity to an ecologically valid infant cry task. Findings add to the literature considering transdiagnostic risk during pregnancy using a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach.
Several studies have documented associations between social isolation and poor physical health or well-being. However, little is known of the importance of social support among older adults on specific topics about their quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between social isolation and quality of life among older adults.
A cross-sectional study.
1,252 subjects aged ≥ 60 years living at home.
We used the Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) to assess social isolation and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-Old) to assess quality of life. Socio-demographic and health factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. A series of linear regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between social isolation and quality of life. The statistical models were controlled for socio-demographic and health factors.
A total of 750 women (60%) and 502 men (40%) participated in the study. According to their LSNS-6 scores, 426 participants (34.0%) were classified into the highest group of isolation (range 0-10 points). Older adults with higher scores of social isolation exhibited lower quality of life. Regression analyses indicated that social isolation correlated with lower levels of global quality of life, autonomy, intimacy, and past, present, and future activities.
Coping with life from a socially isolated situation entails serious difficulties concerning quality of life. Interventions that foster environments where older adults can forge social bonds might improve their quality of life.
The term ‘intertextuality’ (intertextualité) is a modern one, coined by Julia Kristeva in 1967. The theory of intertextuality suggests that a text needs to be read in the light of its allusions to and differences from the content or structure of other texts. No text functions as a completely closed system. As Worton and Still (1990, 1–2) argue: ‘Firstly, the writer is a reader of texts before s/he is a creator of texts, and therefore the work of art is inevitably shot through with references, quotations and influences of every kind[…] Secondly, a text is only available through some process of reading; what is produced at the moment of reading is due to the cross-fertilisation of the packaged textual material […] by all the texts which the reader brings to it.’
Intertextuality emphasizes the dialogic nature of reading and writing. The ‘literary word’, writes Kristeva (1980, 65–66), is ‘an intersection of textual surfaces rather than a point (a fixed meaning), as a dialogue among several writings […] each word (text) is an intersection of other words (texts) where at least one other word (text) can be read.’ Intertextuality creates relationships between texts, both for readers and writers. Although the word is relatively new, travel writing has, of course, been both implicitly and explicitly intertextual for centuries. Travel writing is often overtly intertextual, but, as is true for other genres, it also exists within a network of ‘partially denied or unacknowledged intertexts’ (Hulme 2002a, 223).
The explicit use of intertextuality within travel narratives serves a variety of functions. It can corroborate the truth-value of the text – someone else has done or seen or said the same thing. It can also serve to establish the travel writer as an authoritative figure, one who has done his research before leaving home and whose information can be trusted, although the author may still need to emphasize the primacy of his text. The Victorian traveller Eliot Warburton (1845, xiii) wrote that before visiting the East he had read the accounts of many previous travellers, but he assured his audience that he had ‘not (intentionally) […] used the thoughts of any author’, and that therefore they could trust in the ‘novelty’ of his impressions.
‘Domestic ritual’ refers to the set of tasks performed in a house which helps to preserve the continuity of the house and the life lived therein. Travel is often thought of as an escape from home and domesticity. Critics have claimed that travel allows travellers, particularly women, to free themselves from the constraints of domestic life. Far from being an alternative to homemaking and domesticity, however, travellers – both men and women – spend much of their time in a kind of displaced home-making, creating and re-creating temporary home spaces. Beyond this, the way in which travel is written frequently replicates the rhythm of domestic ritual. There are three main strands: the objects and artefacts that travellers bring with them from home and use to re-create home in the new environment; rituals with which travellers make a new place into a home; the writing of travel and its parallels in domestic ritual.
Tim Youngs (1997, 118) has written: ‘For travellers the relationship to commodities that are taken with them becomes an important means of negotiating and affirming identity at a time when it is under threat […] worries about the instability of self can be displaced onto commodities.’ Repeatedly we find lists of objects taken appearing in accounts of travel, the listing itself part of the way in which travellers establishes their identity. For Sarah Murray (1799, 39), travelling into the Highlands of Scotland before the advent of a touristic infrastructure, a list of necessary items served to establish the possibility of being ‘at home’ in the wilds and establishing control over a land where the sublimity of the landscape threatened to overwhelm her: ‘For the inside of the carriage, get a light flat box […] the side next the travellers should fall down […] to form a table on their laps […] holes for wine bottles, to stand upright in […] tea, sugar, bread, and meat; a tumbler glass, knife and fork, and saltcellar, with two or three napkins.’ Murray created ‘home’ in her carriage, fitted out in ways which allowed her to dine with the manners and refinements of her upperclass London home and to set herself apart from both the landscape and the natives of Scotland.