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We consider a two-echelon production inventory system with a manufacturer having limited production capacity and a distribution center (DC). There is a positive transportation time between the manufacturer and the DC. Customers gain a value by receiving the product and incur a waiting cost when facing a delay. We assume that customers' waiting cost depends on their degree of impatience with respect to delay, which is captured by a convex waiting cost function. Customers are strategic with respect to joining the system and either place an order or balk from the system upon their arrival depending on their expected waiting time. We study the Stackelberg equilibrium assuming that the DC acts as a Stackelberg leader and customers are the followers. We first obtain the total expected revenue and then provide a heuristic to derive the optimal base-stock levels in the warehouse and the DC as well as the optimal price of the product.
This chapter attempts to review comprehensively the interconnection between ethnicity, development and social cohesion with special reference to modern history and contemporary circumstances in Africa. Ethnicity is a historical construct, changeable in relation to the political economy of the modern state. At the same time, ethnicity is a given and overwhelming reality for people, thereby reciprocally affecting politics and economy. Ethnicity dynamically changes in accordance with vertical and horizontal cleavages and thus intra- and inter-ethnic relations and given competitive situation for limited resources in the state and market has tended to result in exclusionary ethnic cohesion and political tribalism in Africa. African ethnicity and its interconnection with development and social cohesion should be understood, referring to phenomena occurring in the contemporary context of globalization: increasing migration causing ethnic diversity and exclusionary reactions, increasing corruption and decline of trust in the state, international spread of organized crimes, increasing incapability of national governments towards global crisis, destructive impact of unregulated markets, and yawning inequality as a global issue. We then examine five critical issues with grave political and economic implications: building democratic institutions, constitutions and governance devolution, media and education, land and territory, natural resources and foreign investment. We conclude the chapter with argument that achieving growth with equity and social cohesion through overcoming relevant problems is not unique challenge to Africa in this acceleratingly globalizing world.
VOR DEM STURM: Roman aus dem Winter 1812 auf 13 (1878; Before the Storm: A Novel of the Winter 1812–13, 1985), Fontane's first novel— and the one most underappreciated—treats the response of various sectors of Prussian society, aristocrats and intellectuals as well as clergy and peasants, to the changing tides of the Napoleonic Wars. It opens in Berlin on Christmas Eve of 1812, as the news of the French defeat in Russia is beginning to circulate, and it concludes as the armed conflict between Prussian militia and French occupiers gets underway. Yet the novel embeds this decisively political material, the birth of modern German nationhood, in an expansive and multidimensional account of the context, the historical legacies of the region, the private lives of the protagonists, and the meandering conversations of a long list of characters, major and minor. This combination of an emphatically political topic, which raises expectations for a decisive parti pris, and a prose strategy that submerges the national-historical narrative in a surfeit of seemingly random material, stands out as the salient aesthetic-political enigma of Vor dem Sturm. This tension between political expectations and quotidian content has elicited a decidedly ambivalent reception history.
Some critics have responded to the eclipse of the political narrative by the digressive treatments of seemingly extraneous content in terms of Fontane's biography and his late development as a novelist. Although he was already sixty when he completed Vor dem Sturm, this was in fact his first novel, and its alleged aesthetic flaws have therefore sometimes been attributed to his underdevelopment as a fiction writer. According to this view, Fontane was still deploying the stylistic habits of his travelogues and therefore was insufficiently attentive to the novel reader's expectations for boldly drawn plot lines. As long ago as 1940, Marianne Zerner argued that Vor dem Sturm suffers “from the compositional weaknesses of a first novel and, through its close connection to the Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg, with technical features that are unfortunate for a novel.” She contrasts the structural expansiveness of Vor dem Sturm with Fontane's tighter subsequent novels.
This paper reports the findings from a study investigating Bhutanese parents’ involvement in supporting their children with special educational needs (SEN) in schooling. The interaction between the parents themselves in supporting each other was also explored. Individual interviews were conducted with 26 parents (13 fathers and 13 mothers) of children with either full inclusion or partial inclusion in 3 schools located in 3 regions (urban, semi-urban, and rural) and analysed using manual thematic coding and Leximancer text mining software. Of Epstein’s (1987) 6 types of parental involvement activities in education, these parents reported their actions to be parenting, volunteering in schools, supporting learning and development at home, and collaborating with the community. The minimal interaction among the parents was mostly between the stay-in-school urban mothers who had consistent but impromptu and informal interactions. The implications of this study inform the need for schools to respond to policy and to actively engage parents, and for education programs and support groups to be set up to strengthen parental involvement in the education of children with SEN in Bhutan.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The accurate and efficient serial measurement of patient centered outcomes is a priority in the clinical care of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS®) Global Health Short Form (PROMIS10) is a 10-item universal patient reported outcome measure of global physical and mental health with construct validity in SLE. The longitudinal responsiveness (sensitivity to change) of PROMIS10 in SLE patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of PROMIS10 in SLE outpatients using patient and physician-derived anchors. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adults meeting SLE classification criteria were recruited from an SLE Center of Excellence. Subjects completed PROMIS10 at two visits a minimum of one month apart. SLE disease activity was measured with a patient global assessment of change, a physician global assessment and the physician-derived SELENA-SLEDAI. Responsiveness over time of PROMIS10 scores was evaluated using known-groups validity. Effect sizes of changes in PROMIS global physical health and global mental health scores from baseline to follow up were compared across groups of patients who differed in their patient global assessment of change, physician global assessment, and SELENA-SLEDAI using Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A diverse cohort of 228 SLE patients completed baseline surveys (Table 1), with 190 (83%) completing a follow up survey. Using the patient-based anchor, PROMIS10 demonstrated mild to moderate responsiveness to improvement (effect size 0.29) and worsening (effect sizes −0.27 and −0.54) of health status for both global physical health and global mental health (Table 2). Using the physician global assessment and SELENA-SLEDAI as anchors, there were no statistically significant differences in effect sizes across groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: PROMIS10 showed responsiveness over time to patient-reported, but not physician-derived changes in lupus health status. These data suggest that PROMIS10 can be used to efficiently measure and monitor important aspects of the patient experience of lupus not captured by physician-derived metrics. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of PROMIS in optimizing longitudinal disease management in SLE.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (RU-CCTS), Clinical Directors Network (CDN), and Carter Burden Network (CBN), a multi-site senior services organization serving East Harlem, NY, formed a community-academic research partnership to characterize the health of the CBN seniors (many who are racial/ethnic minorities, low-income, and suffering from multiple chronic conditions) and to explore the use and associations of a measure of overall health status and frailty in this population. A simple validated measure of health status could standardize and streamline community-based translational research to study the impact of CBN’s services on health outcomes. The CCTS-funded Pilot Project aims to: 1) Engage CBN seniors and stakeholders in priority-setting, joint protocol development, research conduct, analysis and dissemination; 2) Characterize the health status of the CBN seniors using validated measures; 3) Establish an electronic database infrastructure for current and future research; 4) Understand how health and senior activities information can be used to implement programs to improve senior health and well-being. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 1) We used Community Engaged Research Navigation (CEnR-Nav) methods to facilitate partnership development, and to engage CBN seniors and stakeholders in each step of the research; 2) Research staff conducted recruitment, informed consent, and physical assessments (e.g., pulse, blood pressure, BMI); and administered validated surveys to collect health status information. 3) Data were captured on a REDCap-based platform. The primary outcome, frailty, was measured by the validated Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). 4) Secondary outcomes include the association of use of services/activities with the primary outcome. Research participants consented to sharing of their health, demographic and services utilization data compiled by CBN staff and the NYC Department for the Aging (DFTA). DFTA provided comparison datasets of de-identified health and demographic data for clients attending other NYC DFTA-funded senior centers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 1) 43 residents and stakeholders engaged in partnership-building, study design and implementation. 2) 218 participants from two senior centers were enrolled. Mean age, 68 ± 11 years; 58% Hispanic; 33% African American, 23% White, 1% Asian, 18% Unknown, 17% Other; 69% reported <$20000 annual income; 40% had not completed high school; 30% scored as moderately or severely frail; 83% were overweight or obese; and 33% reported a history of diabetes. 84% had uncontrolled high blood pressure; many participants were previously aware of their hypertension diagnosis. 3) A REDcap database was developed to store historical and prospective data. 4) Across frailty categories, there was a significant difference in utilization of non-meal (p = 0.0237) and meal services (p = 0.0127) and there was an inverse proportional relationship between the number of meal and non-meal visits, and frailty. Additional associations among health status measures (e.g., SPPB, demographics, biological measures: pulse, blood pressure, BMI; psychosocial and nutritional scales) and CBN service utilization (i.e., meals vs. non-meals activities) will be presented. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We developed a community-academic research partnership, infrastructure and capacity, built through our Community-Engaged (CEnR-Nav) model, to conduct a pilot study characterizing the health status and services utilization of low-income minority seniors. Our pilot study identified an urgent health priority, uncontrolled hypertension in 84% of CBN’s seniors. We then leveraged the team’s expertise and CBN’s meal services program to develop a research proposal for external funding to conduct a community-based multi-component intervention study. Replacement of a typical Western diet with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been proven to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals in as little as 14 days, yet effective implementation has been lacking, and it is relatively untested in community-living seniors who receive their meals in settings such as CBN. We are also exploring mechanistic questions that relate to blood pressure control, such as the impact of the DASH diet on inflammation, which may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of action of the DASH diet. Our community partner, CBN, was awarded the DHHS-ACL nutrition innovation grant to conduct this 2-year study with CDN and RU-CCTS. The resulting study developed out of the community engaged pilot study represents a unique combination of community-centered care, within an implementation science framework (with embedded mechanistic measures under development). This is an example of the novel, full-spectrum approach to translational research that the RU-CCTS/CDN Community Engaged Research Core has been developing over the last decade. The research to characterize CBN clients’ health status is now being extended to address cardiovascular health by way of intervening on diet quality and food insecurity, a key component of the social determinants of health, in partnership with agencies outside of the healthcare delivery system. The outcomes of the DASH Diet implementation study will also serve to inform the broader aging service provider network and the healthcare community about the impact of senior center congregate meal composition and services on health outcomes.
Among the many scholarly attempts to reckon with the causes and consequences of Donald Trump’s rise, few have attracted popular attention on the scale of Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblatt’s How Democracies Die. Seldom do books by political scientists make it onto the New York Times best sellers list, but this one has, a testament to its broad influence. Levitsky and Ziblatt situate Trumpism within a broader comparative and historical context in order to assess its similarities to and differences from democratic breakdowns elsewhere, particularly in Europe and Latin America. Their broad argument is that modern slides into authoritarianism are not the result of revolutions or military coups, but rather the consequence of a steady erosion of political norms and the assault on such fundamental democratic institutions as an independent judiciary and a free press. In short, contemporary democracies die not as a result of men with guns attacking from outside the system, but rather because elected leaders from inside that system slowly undermine them. Judged from this standpoint, the authors argue that American democracy is now in real danger, and they offer a range of suggestions for saving it. How convincing is Levitsky and Ziblatt’s analysis of democratic breakdown, and how well does it apply to the American case? How useful are the solutions that they offer for rescuing American democracy? We have asked a range of prominent scholars from across the discipline to consider these questions in the present symposium.
James Singer  has shown that there exists a collineation which is transitive on the (t - 1)-spaces, that is, (t - 1)-dimensional linear subspaces, of PG(t, pn). In this paper we shall generalize this result showing that there exist t - r collineations which together are transitive on the s-spaces of PG(t, pn). An explicit construction will be given for such a set of collineations with the aid of primitive elements of Galois fields. This leads to a calculus for the linear subspaces of finite projective geometries.
A configuration is a system of m points and n lines such that each point lies on μ of the lines and each line contains v of the points. It is usually denoted by the symbol (mμ,nμ) with mμ = nv. Two configurations corresponding to the same symbol are said to be equivalent if there exist 1-1 mappings of the points and lines of one onto the points and lines of the other which preserve the incidence relations.
This article proposes a new set of critical historical practices, with the aim of constructing Jewishness into an interpretive historical mode. Jewish history is most commonly understood as the history of the Jewish people and its territories. In setting this as the foundation of Jewish history, scholars have allowed empirical evaluation of the Jewishness of a person or place to precede analysis. Two basic approaches, clearly foundational and tied to personalist and nationalist conceptions of Jewishness, have guided the field of Jewish history: the conjunctive and contingent. A third method—termed here a critical constructive approach—offers a nonfoundational vision for freeing Jewishness and Jewish history from tests of individual, group, or nationalist verifiability and, instead, reconceiving Jewishness as a structuring mode that can affect how a broad range of subjects have operated within history.
BETWEEN THE GERMANS who came to the US to pursue a scholarly career in our field and the Americans who traveled to Europe as part of their studies, there is an obvious symmetry in the shared processes of displacement and leaving home, but there is also an equally significant difference: on the one hand, the seeming naturalness of choosing to study one's own culture, albeit in a foreign context, and on the other, the apparently arbitrary choice to devote oneself to the examination of a foreign language and literature. Both situations irritate conventional expectations and therefore provoke a not-so-subtle pressure to justify one's choice. On visits in Germany, German-born scholars pursuing careers in the US can face questions from friends and family as to how and why they chose a life in America, and such interrogations may become, so I have been told, particularly pointed when transatlantic political tensions are high. Meanwhile, American-born scholars of German-speaking countries sometimes face an analogous pressure from their acquaintances to justify their choice of career and specialization, in a way that colleagues in other academic disciplines or in the professions do not. Not only must we scholars of German literature explain the choice of a humanities career, itself already incomprehensible to many, but also why choose German-speaking countries, of all places.
Part of the response to such challenges involves our fascination with what has developed into transatlantic interdisciplinary German studies. While that elaborate designation does not name the field we entered decades ago, it surely describes the field we have formed and transformed. The disciplinary metamorphosis from Germanistik to German studies has to do with the encounters among different intellectual traditions: how young Americans responded to modalities of European, especially
In this review, we describe how the interplay among science, technology and community interests contributed to the evolution of four structural biology data resources. We present the method by which data deposited by scientists are prepared for worldwide distribution, and argue that data archiving in a trusted repository must be an integral part of any scientific investigation.
In 1938, Jerome Folkman, a Reform rabbi from Grand Rapids, Michigan, attended a dinner party hosted by one of his congregants. The guests had finished eating and were settling into typical after-dinner chatter, when the audacious “Mr. R.” broke the rhythm and declared, “We should send missionaries to the gentiles and try to win converts to Judaism.” Side conversations halted and the guests, all Jewish, curiously peered at Mr. R. as he continued: “Why aren't we more aggressive? Why don't we ask others to join our ranks?” The guests tittered. Some giggled nervously, others muttered that Jews just don't do that. A pragmatist interrupted—the suggestion, in his mind, was only as good as its actual consequences. “Do you think we would get any converts?” he asked. Rabbi Folkman, who later divulged he, too, had toyed with the idea of Jews becoming missionaries in America, tried to clarify the kernel of wisdom behind Mr. R.'s shocking statement.