This study aimed to compare the expression of genes regulating follicles development, survival and steroid hormones secretion in oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs) and study the correlation between their expression and follicular fluid (FF) levels of progesterone (P4) in pregnant and non-pregnant camels. In total, 138 ovarian pairs from slaughtered camels were used. Gene expression and hormonal assay were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The obtained results revealed that the number of follicles (3–8 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in the FF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was noticed in the oestradiol (E2) level. STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GCs and significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA level was significantly lower in GCs and oocytes, and the BMP15 mRNA level was significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in FF was positively correlated with STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels in GCs and negatively correlated with BMP15 mRNA levels in oocytes and FSHR mRNA levels in GCs and oocytes of pregnant camels. It could be concluded that pregnancy-induced variations in oocytes and GC expression of BMP15, IGF1, FSHR, STAR, BCL2, and PTEN genes might be associated with a decrease in the number of follicles and an increase in the FF level of P4.