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Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on reproduction in mice in vivo

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 April 2023

Omid Banafshi
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Zoonoses Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Mohammad Abdi
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Vahideh Assadollahi
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Ebrahim Mohammadi
Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Ebrahim Ghaderi
Zoonoses Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Mohammad Bagher Khadem Erfan
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Mohammad Jafar Rezaei
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Vida Aghamiri
Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Fardin Fathi*
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Author for correspondence: Fardin Fathi. Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Pasdaran St, Sanandaj 6617755445, Iran. Tel: +98 9183735091. E-mail:


Smoking has dangerous and sometimes irreversible effects on various body tissues, including the reproductive system. We conducted this research to determine the in vivo effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on reproduction in mice. In this experimental in vivo study, 32 male and female NMRI mice were divided into four groups. The mice were injected with CSC (CSC-1R3F) for 28 days. The mice were mated 1 day after the last injection and observed daily for 1 week for the presence of a vaginal plug to track mating. We evaluated mating success rate, and sperm and oocyte quality, pregnancy outcome, childbearing status, and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The results showed a decrease in successful mating in female mice that received the CSC injections. CSC significantly influenced the number of offspring born to males. When the CSC was injected into male mice, there was a significant increase in the number of offspring compared with the group in which only the females received CSC injections. According to the results, there was a negative effect of CSC on morphological parameters in male and female mice. Also, successful IVF after exposure to CSC was significantly decreased in the female mice treated group. The results indicated that CSC significantly affected the number of offspring and fecundity success in females.

Research Article
© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press

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