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Herbicidal Residues in Pond Water and Hydrosoil

  • P. A. Frank (a1) and R. D. Comes (a2)

Abstract

Herbicidal residues in water and soil were determined after treating eight ponds with six herbicides. Relatively high concentrations of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil), 2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid (fenac), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were present in the upper 1-in of the hydrosoil following treatments with granular formulations of these herbicides. Fenac and dichlobenil residues persisted in both water and soil for periods exceeding 160 days. Low concentrations of 2,4-D were found in water for 24 days and in the soil for 55 days following treatment. The mono-N,N-dimethylcocoamine salt of 7-oxabicyclo(2.2.1)heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (amine salt of endothall), 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium salt (paraquat), and 6,7-dihydrodipyrido(1,2-a:2’,1′-c)-pyrazidiinium salt (diquat) were relatively less persistent in water and were no longer found after 24, 8, and 4 days, respectively. However, paraquat and diquat were held by the hydrosoils and persisted in high concentrations for more than 85 and 160 days, respectively. In ponds with dense weed infestations, a large fraction of the herbicide may be held by the plants for some time.

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References

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1. Aly, Osman M. and Faust, Samuel D. 1964. Studies on the fate of 2,4-D and ester derivatives in natural waters. J. Agr. Food Chem. 12:541546.
2. Blackburn, R. D. and Weldon, L. D. 1963. Results of 3 years testing diquat as an aquatic herbicide in Florida. Proc. SWC 16:365. (Abstr.)
3. Coates, G. E., Funderburk, H. H. Jr., Lawrence, J. M., and Davis, D. E. 1964. Persistence of diquat and paraquat in pools and ponds. Proc. SWC 17:308320.
4. Grzenda, Alfred R., Page Nicholson, H., and Cox, William S. 1966. Persistence of four herbicides in pond water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 58:326332.
5. Mackenzie, J. W. 1965. Diquat and paraquat—where do they stand as aquatic herbicides? Proc. SWC 18:512515.
6. Wilkinson, Robt. E. 1961. Subaqueous release of herbicides from granules. Weeds 12:6976.

Herbicidal Residues in Pond Water and Hydrosoil

  • P. A. Frank (a1) and R. D. Comes (a2)

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