Techniques were developed for evaluating herbicides on submersed, floating, and emersed aquatic weeds. Among 75 herbicides evaluated on three species of submersed weeds only 1:1′-ethylene-2:2′-dipyridylium (diquat); 1:1′-dimethyl-4:4′-dipyridylium (paraquat); di-N,N-dimethylcocoamine salt of 3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid (endothal); and acrylaldehyde (acrolein) gave 85 percent or better control at 1 ppmw in still-water tests. Only acrolein and the di-N,N-dimethylcocoamine salt of endothal were effective on submersed weeds at 1 ppmw in the limited-exposure test. The evaluation of 17 herbicides on three species of floating aquatic weeds indicated that diquat was effective when applied at rates of 1 or 2 lb/A. The tertiary fatty acid amines of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were more effective on floating weeds than an ester of 2,4-D. Many of the 78 herbicides evaluated on alligator-weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) killed the tops, but only two retarded the sprouting of underwater nodes longer than 6 weeks. Applications of 20 lb/A of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid (silvex) in two formulations retarded sprouting of underwater nodes for 8 weeks.