Data were collected on 36 variables including application, environmental, edaphic, and plant conditions during a 3-year study of aerial brush control treatments at 79 sites. These then were correlated with defoliation responses of blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica Muenchh.) and post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.) to (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T). The stage of oak growth was of primary importance in obtaining maximum defoliation with 2,4,5-T; the oaks were most susceptible 6 to 8 weeks after the last killing frost. Air temperatures above 90 F, relative humidity below 60%, poor spray coverage and swath widths greater than 50 ft significantly reduced defoliation by 2,4,5-T. Total rainfall during the month before spray application was positively correlated with defoliation by 2,4,5-T, but correlations with rainfall for other time intervals before and after spraying were not significant. Wind above 6 mph at the time of treatment slightly reduced 2,4,5-T effectiveness, but wind direction and dew at spray time did not influence herbicide activity. Application rates of less than 1.75 lb/A were not as effective as higher rates. Aircraft design, spray-water carrier constituents, soil type, soil depth, soil temperature, and topography had no apparent influence on defoliation of oaks by 2,4,5-T.