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Foliar Penetration of Picloram and 2,4-D in Aspen and Balsam Poplar

  • M. P. Sharma (a1) and W. H. Vanden Born (a1)

Abstract

Added surfactant (Atlox 210) at 1% (v/v) and high relative humidity enhanced the penetration of both 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) into detached leaves of aspen poplar (Populus tremuloides Michx.). The influence of added surfactant was greater for picloram and the dimethylamine of 2,4-D than for the ethyl or butoxyethanol ester of 2,4-D. Penetration of picloram and the dimethylamine of 2,4-D occurred more readily from the abaxial than from adaxial surfaces of leaves. The ethyl ester of 2,4-D penetrated equally readily from both leaf surfaces. Penetration of picloram and the dimethylamine of 2,4-D from the adaxial surface of leaves occurred readily in young leaves in early June. There was an increase in penetration in early July followed by a decrease in August and September to a level equal to or less than that in June. Penetration from the abaxial surface of leaves was nearly equal in June and July, but there was a gradual decrease in August and September. An increase in temperature from 10 to 25.5 or to 40.5 C resulted in a sharp increase in penetration of both picloram and 2,4-D under both low and high relative humidity. Autoradiographic evidence showed that movement of picloram within the leaf also was much more extensive at the higher temperatures. Partial removal of cuticular waxes from the adaxial surface of leaves with chloroform resulted in up to four-fold increases in penetration of picloram and 2,4-D. Differences in penetration rate of picloram between leaves of aspen poplar and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) did not account for reported differences in susceptibility between these two species.

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References

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Foliar Penetration of Picloram and 2,4-D in Aspen and Balsam Poplar

  • M. P. Sharma (a1) and W. H. Vanden Born (a1)

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