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Three chlorsulfuron-resistant kochia accessions were tested for levels of resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides, based on whole plant response and sensitivity of the target enzyme. The resistant Minot and Chester accessions were not affected by treatment with 175 g ha−1 chlorsulfuron, and I50 values for the Chester accession ranged from 22-fold (metsulfuron-methyl) to 196-fold (chlorsulfuron) higher than the susceptible Bozeman accession. However, the Chester accession was 1.5- to 2-fold more resistant than Minot to five sulfonylurea herbicides, as determined by acetolactate synthase (ALS) I50 values. The third resistant accession (Power) displayed an intermediate response and was only 2- to 5-fold more resistant than the susceptible Bozeman accession to all sulfonylurea herbicides tested. The Minot and Chester accessions were slightly cross-resistant to four imidazolinone herbicides, ranging from 2-fold (imazamethabenz, imazethapyr, and imazaquin) to 6-fold (imazapyr) more resistant than the Bozeman accession, but cross-resistance levels did not differ appreciably between the Minot and Chester accessions. The Power accession was not cross-resistant to the four imidazolinone herbicides tested. The results demonstrate that degrees of ALS resistance and cross-resistance are highly variable among kochia populations: these differences may be due to the type of mutation in the gene encoding ALS.
Bromoxynil efficacy, uptake, translocation, and spray retention were investigated when bromoxynil was applied in conventional water volumes of 234 L ha−1 and in simulated sprinkler irrigation at 127 000 L ha−1 to common lambsquarters. Bromoxynil controlled common lambsquarters similarly regardless of water volume, whereas injury to spearmint, a tolerant crop, was greatest using low water volume. Spray retention was 18 and 38 times greater on common lambsquarters and spearmint, respectively, when bromoxynil was applied in 234 L ha−1 than 127 000 L ha−1. Two weeks after applying bromoxynil in 127 000 L ha−1 water volume, common lambsquarters dry weight was 60% of the nontreated check where only soil was treated but was 5% of the nontreated check where only leaves were treated. Roots of lambsquarters absorbed 22% of 14C-bromoxynil applied to hydroponic solution by 7 d, but only 2% was translocated to the shoots. Percent absorption and translocation of foliar-applied 14C-bromoxynil were 15 and 6% greater, respectively, from 0.0096 g L−1 than from a 1.2 g L−1 bromoxynil solution by 24 h after application. Uptake of bromoxynil was 13% greater through lower than upper leaf surfaces. These results suggest efficacy of bromoxynil applied in large spray volumes is, in part, due to root uptake, efficient foliar uptake and translocation, and uptake from lower leaf surfaces.
Broadleaf weeds, including spurred anoda, emerge after direct-seeded chile peppers are thinned. Field experiments were conducted in 1989, 1990, and 1991 to determine the effect of spurred anoda density on green and red pepper yield, quality, and ease of hand harvest. Spurred anoda was established immediately after peppers were thinned at initial densities of 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, or 48 plants 9 m−1 row. The 1991 experiment also evaluated the influence of delayed pepper thinning and concurrent spurred anoda establishment on the competitive effect of spurred anoda. Spurred anoda were beginning to flower at green harvest and senescing at red harvest regardless of planting date. Spurred anoda were taller and accumulated more biomass when planted at a pepper thinning stage of 10 cm compared to 20 cm. Spurred anoda that emerged after thinning peppers reduced yield and ease of harvest of green and red peppers but not the quality of green peppers. Yield reduction at the highest spurred anoda density was 31 to 49% and 12 to 27% when peppers were thinned at 10 or 20 cm, respectively. Yield reduction was smaller when peppers were thinned at 20 cm tall than 10 cm tall and appeared to be associated with reduced spurred anoda biomass. Time required to hand harvest 1 kg of green or red peppers increased as spurred anoda density increased when peppers were thinned at 10 cm.
Field studies were conducted in 1986 and 1987 to determine the critical period for weed control in white bean grown in Ontario. The treatments consisted of either allowing weeds to infest the crop for increasing durations after planting or maintaining plots weed free for increasing durations after planting. The beginning of the critical period was defined as the crop stage by which weed interference reduced yields by 3%. Similarly, the end of the critical period was defined as the crop stage to which the crop had to be weed free to prevent a 3% yield loss. The critical period of weed control occurred between the second-trifoliolate and first-flower stages of growth for all cultivars and years, with the exception of the cultivar ‘OAC Seaforth’ in 1986. The average number of pods per plant for both cultivars was reduced by increasing durations of weed interference after planting in both years. However, pod number of the cultivar OAC Seaforth was reduced at a greater rate in 1986 than ‘Ex Rico 23’. The beginning of the critical period corresponded with the beginning of a rapid increase in total weed biomass.
Annual application of AC-94377 at 3.4 kg ha−1 in the field reduced survival of shallowly buried (1.25 cm deep), undisturbed wild mustard seed compared to untreated check seed in two 4-yr-long trials. By the second fall, greater than twofold more untreated check seed survived as did AC-94377-treated seed. Moreover, no AC-94377-treated seed survived beyond year three following treatment in fall alone or fall plus spring in each of 3 yr. In contrast, 25% of untreated check seed survived into the fall of year four. AC-94377 applied in spring alone, fall alone, or both spring and fall for each of 4 yr progressively reduced seed survival. Seed survival expressed as a percent of the initial number of seed buried was best modeled as a negative exponential function of time in years. In the greenhouse, more wild mustard seed on the soil surface established after AC-94377 treatment at 3.4 kg ha−1 when enclosed in large seed packets (5 by 12 cm), like those used in the field, than when in small seed packets (5 by 6.25 cm), whether or not the packets contained soil. When soil was added to either sized seed packet, fewer seed survived compared to seed not in seed packets or seed in packets without soil. Thus, it is likely that the field seed survival study underestimated effectiveness of AC-94377 to reduce wild mustard seed survival.
Field studies were conducted at three locations over 2 yr in southern Ontario to determine the critical period of weed control in soybean. This period generally consisted of two discrete periods, a critical weed-free period and a critical time of weed removal. The critical weed-free period was relatively short in duration and consistent across locations and years. A period of weed control lasting up to the fourth node growth stage (V4), approximately 30 days after emergence (DAE), was adequate to prevent a yield loss of more than 2.5%. The critical time of weed removal was variable across locations and years and ranged, for example, from the second node growth stage (V2) to the beginning pod growth stage (R3), approximately 9 to 38 DAE, at a 2.5% yield loss level. A phenologically based period of most rapid yield loss due to weed interference occurred from beginning bloom stage (R1) to beginning seed stage (R5). The short and consistent critical weed-free period indicates the duration of residual herbicide control necessary in soybean and supports use of nonresidual, postemergence herbicides and mechanical weed control.
Dose-response studies estimating GR40 values indicated different levels of propanil resistance in junglerice populations from fields previously treated with propanil, compared to a check population collected where this herbicide had never been used. The GR40 for susceptible populations ranged from 0.36 to 0.50 kg ai ha−1 and for resistant populations ranged from 1.10 to 3.10 kg ai ha−1. Considerable variability in growth and morphology existed among populations. Variability in cumulative leaf area, aboveground biomass, mean relative growth rate, mean net assimilation rate, and mean leaf area ratio could not be related to propanil resistance. Competitiveness was not related to propanil resistance either. of several vegetative and reproductive parameters measured at maturity, only grain weight per plant and number of grains per plant were correlated with GR40 (r = −0.73, P = 0.06). This trend towards lower reproductive fitness in propanil-resistant junglerice plants may reduce its ecological success when growing with propanil-susceptible plants in the absence of this herbicide.
Hairy vetch was grown as a winter annual cover crop and evaluated for weed suppression when desiccated by paraquat or left alive until natural senescence in a 3-yr field experiment. Total weed density and biomass were variable in the desiccated hairy vetch treatment relative to a bare soil treatment but were consistently lower in the live hairy vetch treatment relative to the desiccated or bare soil treatments. An average of 87% of sites under live hairy vetch compared to 8% of sites under desiccated hairy vetch transmitted less than 1% of unobstructed sunlight. The red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) ratio of transmitted light was reduced by 70% under live hairy vetch compared to 17% under desiccated hairy vetch. Daily maximum soil temperature and diurnal soil temperature amplitude were reduced by live hairy vetch > desiccated hairy vetch > bare soil. Soil moisture content was greater under both live and desiccated hairy vetch compared to bare soil during droughty periods. Changes in light extinction, red to far-red ratio, and diurnal soil temperature amplitude were sufficient to explain greater weed suppression by live than desiccated hairy vetch.
Homozygous, sethoxydim-tolerant corn was field tested at two locations in 1989 and 1990. Sethoxydim at 0.22, 0.44, and 0.88 kg ha−1 was applied to sethoxydimtolerant corn in the 3- and 7-leaf stages. None of the sethoxydim treatments caused visible injury to the sethoxydim-tolerant corn, but all treatments were lethal to a parental corn line used as a control. Sethoxydim applied at either stage of corn development had no effect on number of days to 50% silk emergence, plant height, or grain yield, compared to nontreated plants. Sethoxydim-tolerant corn was also tolerant to mixtures of sethoxydim plus other postemergence herbicides that control dicotyledonous weeds. Sethoxydim mixed with atrazine or sethoxydim applied in sequential applications with dicamba or 2,4-D gave annual grass control similar to sethoxydim applied alone. However, the sethoxydim plus bentazon treatment resulted in reduced grass control in comparison to sethoxydim alone. When the broadleaf herbicides were mixed with sethoxydim or applied as sequential treatments, broadleaf weed control was the same as when the broadleaf herbicides were applied alone. The high level of corn tolerance to sethoxydim and the broad spectrum of weed control resulting from combinations of sethoxydim plus other postemergence herbicides indicates that sethoxydim-tolerant corn hybrids could increase the options available for weed control in corn.
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to examine foliar absorption and activity of nicosulfuron and primisulfuron by quackgrass with various adjuvants. Foliar absorption of 14C-nicosulfuron and 14C-primisulfuron plus petroleum oil adjuvant (POA) was completed by 4 h after application. Absorption of nicosulfuron plus POA and primisulfuron plus POA increased from 11 and 2% of applied, respectively, to 51 and 12% with the addition of urea-ammonium nitrate liquid fertilizer (UAN). At least 83% of the absorbed 14C from either herbicide penetrated the leaf epicuticular waxes. Absorption of 14C-labeled herbicides was greatest with the following adjuvants: POA + UAN > nonionic surfactant (NIS) + UAN = methylated seed oil. The addition of UAN to either NIS or POA significantly increased 14C-herbicide uptake. In greenhouse studies, nicosulfuron and primisulfuron applied with POA plus UAN provided greater quackgrass control than with POA alone. Despite the differences in foliar uptake in the greenhouse, few differences were observed between these adjuvants in 1989 or 1990 field efficacy trials. Quackgrass control was reduced by the addition of atrazine to nicosulfuron plus POA in 1989 and to primisulfuron plus POA in 1990. Combinations with atrazine did not reduce 14C-nicosulfuron or 14C-primisulfuron uptake by quackgrass.
Triazine-resistant (TR) kochia control with herbicides was evaluated in the greenhouse and in the field on ridge-till and ecofallow corn. In the greenhouse, bromoxynil, dicamba, linuron, and paraquat applied POST controlled TR kochia > 86%. Control of TR kochia with 2,4-D ester at 0.3 kg ae ha−1 varied with kochia biotype. In three ridge-till fields in 1985, atrazine plus fluorochloridone at 2.2 plus 0.6 kg ai ha−1 applied before planting plus a layby cultivation was the only treatment that reduced TR kochia biomass to < 750 kg ha−1. In 1986, atrazine plus dicamba at 2.2 plus 0.3 kg ha−1, atrazine plus fluorochloridone at 2.2 plus 0.3 or 0.6 kg ha−1 applied EPOST; atrazine at 2.2 kg ha−1 applied EPOST followed by an MPOST application of bromoxynil at 0.3 or 0.4 kg ha−1, or dicamba plus 2,4-D ester at 0.3 plus 0.3 kg ha−1; and an MPOST application of atrazine plus dicamba at 1.3 plus 0.5 kg ha−1, atrazine plus pyridate at 1.1 plus 1.0 kg ai ha−1, or pyridate plus cyanazine at 1.0 plus 1.7 kg ai ha−1 followed by a layby cultivation reduced kochia biomass to < 400 kg ha−1. In ecofallow corn, the only herbicide treatment that consistently controlled TR kochia > 95% 21 to 30 d after application was pyridate plus fluorochloridone at 1.0 plus 0.6 kg ha−1. Other treatments were less effective because kochia was too large or additional kochia emerged after application. When added to atrazine plus cyanazine, paraquat at 0.3 kg ai ha−1 plus dicamba was more effective than paraquat plus 2,4-D ester or paraquat alone in controlling TR kochia.
Resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides was identified in four wild oat populations from western Canada. Populations UM1, UM2, and UM3 originated from northwestern Manitoba and UM33 from south-central Saskatchewan. Field histories indicated that these populations were exposed to repeated applications of diclofop-methyl and sethoxydim over the previous 10 yr. The populations differed in their levels and patterns of cross-resistance to these and five other acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors (ACCase inhibitors). UM1, UM2, and UM3 were resistant to diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, and sethoxydim. In contrast, UM33 was resistant to the aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicides but not to sethoxydim. The dose of sethoxydim required to reduce growth of UM1 by 50% was 150 times greater than for a susceptible population (UM5) or UM33 based on shoot dry matter reductions 21 d after treatment. This population differed from UM2 and UM3 that had R/S ratios of less than 10. In the field UM1 also exhibited a very high level of resistance to sethoxydim. In contrast to susceptible plants that were killed at the recommended dosage, shoot dry matter of resistant plants treated at eight times the recommended dosage was reduced by only 27%. In growth chamber experiments none of the four populations was cross-resistant to herbicides from five different chemical families.
Formation and distribution of 14C-atrazine degradation products in the top 120 cm of soil were determined over 16 mo under field conditions in an Estherville sandy loam. After 16 mo, 78% of applied 14C was still present in the soil. By 2 mo after treatment (MAT), 14C had moved to the 30- to 40-cm depth; however, movement to depths greater than 40 cm was not observed. Greater than 98% of the 14C remaining in the soil profile after 16 mo was in the top 20 cm. Twenty-seven percent of the 14C applied was atrazine 16 MAT. Atrazine was the predominant 14C-compound in soil below 10 cm. Hydroxyatrazine (HA) was the major degradation product in the top 10 cm of soil. The proportion of 14C as HA in the top 10 cm increased from 15% 2 MAT to 37% 16 MAT. Deethylatrazine (DEA) was the predominant degradation product at the 10- to 30-cm depth and accounted for up to 23% of the 14C present in the 10- to 20-cm depth. Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) accounted for less than 6% of the radioactivity recovered at any soil depth. The proportion of DEA and DIA increased while the proportion of HA decreased as soil depth increased, indicating that DEA and DIA are more mobile in soil than HA. Detection of HA at depths greater than 10 cm appears to be due to in situ degradation of atrazine previously moved to that soil depth. The large amount of 14C remaining in the soil 16 MAT suggests that a large pool of atrazine and its degradation products are present in the soil for an extended period following application and have the potential to contaminate ground water.
A pot bioassay, based on root growth of pregerminated corn, was used to evaluate factors influencing field persistence of chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, triasulfuron, and tribenuron, which were applied preemergence at 0, 10, 20, and 40 g ai ha−1 to wheat grown in three soils that differed in texture (sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and silty clay loam) and pH (7.9, 4.7, and 7.6). Residual activity and leaching of all herbicides in all soils increased with increasing rate of application, with the exception of tribenuron which showed practically no residual activity and leaching in sandy clay loam soil. Sunflower sown 4 mo after tribenuron application in all soils was not injured by any rate used but was significantly affected by the other herbicides. Lentil and sugarbeet also were affected by all herbicides in all soils. These three crops sown 8 mo after herbicide application were not affected by any herbicide used in the sandy clay loam soil but were injured by chlorsulfuron, triasulfuron, and metsulfuron in the sandy loam soil. Only lentil and sugarbeet were injured by chlorsulfuron in the silty clay loam soil.
A leaching test conducted in field lysimeters for the purpose of pesticide registration is evaluated, particularly in terms of factors such as the effects of soil type, variability in leaching between replicate lysimeters, and simulation of worst-case scenarios. Two herbicides, dichlorprop and bentazon, were chosen as test compounds due to their documented high mobility in laboratory tests. Four different soil types (sand, loam, clay, peat) and two irrigation treatments were included. Both herbicides were applied at rates representing normal doses (1.6 and 0.6 kg ai ha−1 of dichlorprop and bentazon, respectively). 36Cl was also applied to sand and clay lysimeters to follow the pattern of water movement. Leaching of dichlorprop for the varying soil type/treatment combinations ranged from 0.02 to 1.8% of the amount applied. Leaching losses of bentazon reached up to 0.07% of that applied. Leaching of both herbicides was greater mostly in clay monoliths than in sand monoliths, which was explained in terms of macropore flow. A more effective macropore flow was also suggested to be the main reason why more dichlorprop leached in clay and peat monoliths treated with a small water input. Detectable, and in some cases large, concentrations of dichlorprop were found in the first drainage water in early autumn in all soil/treatment combinations, indicating the occurrence of preferential flow in all soils tested, including sand. A rapid breakthrough of 36Cl was also found in clay and low-irrigation input sand, providing additional confirmation of the role of preferential flow processes in these soils. It is concluded that field mobility tests for pesticide registration are a necessary complement to measurements of physical/chemical properties of a compound and that these should be performed in a range of soil types, including at least one structured soil. Other factors identified to be of importance when evaluating lysimeter studies such as this were the analytical detection limits of the pesticides and the need for replication.
The impact of either nicosulfuron or primisulfuron on maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV-A) severity in corn and corn susceptibility to MDMV-A infection were evaluated in greenhouse and laboratory studies. Neither herbicide influenced severity of MDMV-A in corn or corn susceptibility to the virus. Field experiments at five sites examined MDMV-A severity in corn as influenced by POST johnsongrass control with either nicosulfuron or primisulfuron applied at the fifth or eighth visible collar stage, no johnsongrass control, or johnsongrass control throughout the season with hoeing. Area under the cumulative virus curve (AUCVC) was reduced when either herbicide was applied at the fifth-leaf stage compared to the eighth-leaf stage, at four sites. Also, AUCVC was reduced when johnsongrass was controlled with a POST herbicide applied at the fifth or eighth collar stage compared to no control, at two sites. Increases in AUCVC were due to a greater number of infected plants rather than more severe MDMV-A infections.
Field and greenhouse experiments evaluated interactions of soil-applied insecticides and imazaquin and imazethapyr on growth and development of cotton. Imazaquin and imazethapyr were applied PPI at 0 to 6 and 0 to 16 g ae ha−1, respectively, in the greenhouse (plus a no-insecticide control), and 0 to 72 g ha−1 in the field in combination with aldicarb, disulfoton, and phorate (without a no-insecticide control) applied in the seed furrow. Cotton shoot fresh weight in the greenhouse experiment decreased linearly as herbicide rates increased. Greater reductions in shoot fresh weight were noted with imazaquin than with imazethapyr. Compared with no insecticide, the methylcarbamate insecticide aldicarb and the organophosphate insecticides disulfoton and phorate did not affect cotton response to either herbicide. In the field, cotton injury increased while stand, yield, and maturity decreased as herbicide rates increased. Delayed maturity was due to a lower percentage of bolls produced on sympodia from main stem nodes four to nine. Imazaquin caused greater injury, greater reductions in stand, greater delays in maturity, and lower yields than did imazethapyr. Earlier maturity was noted with aldicarb-treated cotton. Compared with aldicarb, disulfoton and phorate did not alter cotton response to imazaquin or imazethapyr.
Concentrations of hexazinone and two metabolites in vegetation were determined for 2 yr after broadcast application of a 10% granular formulation of hexazinone at 2 and 4 kg ai ha−1 rates in August 1986 in a boreal forest. Prewinter concentrations of hexazinone in stems of trembling aspen, Saskatoon berry, and willow ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 μg−1 dry wt at 64 d after treatment (DAT). Absorption of hexazinone accelerated during spring thaw (1987), and residues in foliage of several woody and herbaceous species peaked during May to July. Patterns of accumulation of hexazinone and its metabolites varied with the species. Foliar concentrations diminished significantly by the end of the first growing season in 1987 (372 DAT) and were undetectable or extremely low at the end of the second growing season in 1988 (707 DAT). Based on the highest residue concentrations detected in several plant species, it is estimated that wildlife would ingest a maximum of 16, 28, and 24 mg of hexazinone, metabolite A, and metabolite B, respectively, for every kg of dry matter consumed. Reported LD50 values suggest that application of hexazinone at the 4 kg ai ha−1 rate or less poses no toxicological threat to wildlife.
A method of calculating confidence intervals of the “area of influence” of a weed plant, and of yield losses calculated from it, was developed. In a worked example using published data, the confidence intervals of the area of influence were found to be large. Yield losses calculated from this method were less precisely estimated than those from a more traditional additive density experiment. This limited evidence suggests that to give similar precision, the area of influence experiments may need to be at least double their present size. If this is indeed the case, published statements on the space, time, and effort advantages of the area of influence design will need to be treated with caution.
Shin oak is a deciduous shrub that forms dense stands of brush on sandy soils in rangeland areas of the Rolling and High Plains of Texas. Plant canopy reflectance measurements made on shin oak showed that it had both low visible (0.63- to 0.69-μm waveband) and nearinfrared (0.76- to 0.90-μm waveband) reflectance values, a characteristic generally not shared by associated plant species or mixtures of species. The low reflectance values of shin oak caused it to have dark-red, reddish-brown, or brown image tones on color-infrared photographic, videographic, and SPOT satellite images that made it distinguishable from associated vegetation and other land use features. The optimum time to remotely distinguish this noxious shrub is during the mature phenological stage from June to September. Computer-based image analyses of video and satellite images showed that shin oak populations could be quantified. This technique can permit “percent land area” estimates of shin oak on rangelands. The aerial imagery is useful for detecting shin oak on smaller rangeland areas, whereas the satellite imagery is applicable in mapping large areas of shin oak distribution.