Skip to main content Accessibility help

Tolerance of tomato cultivars to velvetleaf interference

  • Mathieu Ngouajio (a1), Milton E. McGiffen and Kurt J. Hembree (a2)


Field experiments were conducted in 1998 and 1999 at Five Points, CA, in the San Joaquin Valley under irrigated conditions to study competition between four commonly grown tomato cultivars and velvetleaf and to identify cultivar characteristics associated with greater tolerance to velvetleaf. The effect of velvetleaf competition varied with both year and tomato cultivar. When grown with 5 velvetleaf plants m−1 of row, marketable yield of tomato was reduced 8% in 1998 and 60% in 1999 for cultivar H8892 and 58% in 1998 and 80% in 1999 for cultivar H9661, compared to cultivars grown in monoculture. Across velvetleaf densities, height of tomato cultivars was not reduced compared to that of cultivars grown in monoculture. However in 1999, canopy width of tomato cultivars grown with velvetleaf was less than that of cultivars grown in monoculture. At early stages of growth, the leaf area index of tomato cultivars grown with velvetleaf was less than that of cultivars grown in monoculture. Crop growth rate and aboveground dry biomass of tomato cultivars grown with velvetleaf were generally less than those of cultivars grown in monoculture. Yield loss at high weed density was similar among cultivars, whereas yield loss at low weed density varied among cultivars. Cultivar tolerance to velvetleaf varied with year. However, cultivar H8892 had low yield loss and cultivar H9661 high yield loss at low weed density in 1998 and 1999. For cultivar H8892, leaf area expansion rate was also among the greatest for both years.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Botany and Plant Science Department, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;


Hide All
Alm, D. M., McGiffen, M. E. Jr., and Hesketh, J. D. 1991. Modelling weed phenology. Pages 191228 In Hodges, T., ed. Physiological Aspects of Predicting Phenology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Baghestani, A., Lemieux, C., Leroux, G. D., Baziramakenga, R., and Simard, R. 1999. Determination of allelochemicals in spring cereal cultivars of different competitiveness. Weed Sci. 47:498504.
Callaway, M. B. 1990. A compendium of crop varietal tolerance to weeds. Am. J. Alternat. Agric. 7:169180.
Cavero, J., Zaragoza, C., Suso, M. L., and Pardo, A. 1999. Competition between maize and Datura stramonium in an irrigated field under semi-arid conditions. Weed Res. 39:225240.
Challaiah, R. E. Ramsel, Wicks, G. A., Burnside, O. C., and Johnson, V. A. 1983. Evaluation of competitive ability of winter wheat cultivars. Proc. North Cent. Weed Cont. Conf. 38:8591.
Christensen, S. 1995. Weed suppressive ability of spring barley cultivars. Weed Res. 35:241247.
Cousens, R. 1985. A simple model relating yield loss to weed density. Ann. Appl. Biol. 107:239252.
Defelice, M. S., Witt, W. W., and Barrett, M. 1988. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) growth and development in conventional and no-tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci. 36:609615.
Forcella, F. 1987. Tolerance of weed competition associated with high leaf-area expansion rate in tall fescue. Crop Sci. 27:146147.
Hartz, T. K. and Miyao, G. 1997. Processing Tomato Production in California. Oakland, CA: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publ. 7228. 3 p.
Kropff, M. J. 1993. Mechanisms of competition for light. Pages 3361 In Kropff, M. J. and van Laar, H. H., eds. Modelling crop-weed interactions. Wallinford, Great Britain: CAB International and the International Rice Research Institute.
Kropff, M. J. and Lotz, L.A.P. 1993. Eco-physiological characterization of the species. Pages 83104 In Kropff, M. J. and van Laar, H. H., eds. Modelling crop-weed interactions. Wallinford, Great Britain: CAB International and the International Rice Research Institute.
Kropff, M. J., Spitters, C.J.T., Schnieders, B. J., Joenje, W., and De Groot, W. 1992. An eco-physiological model for interspecific competition, applied to the influence of Chenopodium album L. on sugar beet. II. Model evaluation. Weed Res. 32:451463.
Lindquist, J. L. and Mortensen, D. A. 1998. Tolerance and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) suppressive ability of two old and two modern corn (Zea mays) hybrids. Weed Sci. 46:569574.
Lindquist, J. L. and Mortensen, D. A. 1999. Ecophysiological characteristics of four maize hybrids and Abutilon theophrasti . Weed Res. 39:271285.
Lindquist, J. L., Mortensen, D. A., and Johnson, B. E. 1998. Mechanisms of corn tolerance and velvetleaf suppressive ability. Agron. J. 90:787792.
Marwat, K. B. and Nafziger, E. D. 1990. Cocklebur and velvetleaf interference with soybean grown at different densities and planting patterns. Agron. J. 82:531534.
McDonald, A. J. and Riha, S. J. 1999. Model of crop: weed competition applied to maize: Abutilon theophrasti interactions. I Model description and evaluation. Weed Res. 39:355369.
McGiffen, M. E. Jr., Forcella, F., Lindstrom, M. J., and Reicosky, D. C. 1997. Covariance of cropping systems and foxtail density as predictors of weed interference. Weed Sci. 45:388396.
McGiffen, M. E. Jr., and Masiunas, J. B. 1992. Prediction of black and eastern black nightshade (Solanum nigrum and S. ptycanthum) growth using degree days. Weed Sci. 40:8689.
McGiffen, M. E. Jr., Masiunas, J. B., and Hesketh, J. D. 1992. Competition for light between tomatoes and nightshades (Solanum nigrum or S. ptycanthum). Weed Sci. 40:220226.
McGiffen, M. E. Jr., Ogbuchiekwe, E. J., and Saharan, B. S. 1995. Protocol for developing weed-tolerant crops. Hortic. Sci. 30:819.
McGiffen, M. E. Jr., Pantone, D. J., and Masiunas, J. B. 1994. Path analysis of tomato yield components in relation to competition with black and eastern nightshade. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 119:611.
McLachlan, S. M., Tollenaar, M., Swanton, C. J., and Weise, S. F. 1993. Effect of corn-induced shading on dry matter accumulation, distribution, and architecture of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Weed Sci. 41:568573.
Ni, H., Moody, M., Robles, R. P., Paller, E. C. Jr., and Lales, J. S. 2000. Oryza sativa plant traits conferring competitive ability against weeds. Weed Sci. 48:200204.
Patterson, D. T. 1992. Temperature and canopy development of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 6:6876.
Perez, F.G.M. and Masiunas, J. B. 1990. Eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) interference in processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Weed Sci. 38:385388.
Ponce, R. G., Zancada, C., Verdugo, M., and Salas, L. 1996. Plant height as a factor in competition between black nightshade and two horticultural crops (tomato and pepper). J. Hortic. Sci. 71:453460.
Qasem, J. R. 1992. Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) interference in transplanted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). J. Hortic. Sci. 67:421427.
Regnier, E. E. and Stoller, E. W. 1989. The effects of soybean (Glycine max) interference on the canopy of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Sci. 37:187195.
Rick, C. M. 1976. Natural variability in wild species of Lycopersicon and its bearing on tomato breeding. Genet. Agric. 30:249259.
Rick, C. M. 1978. The tomato. Sci. Am. 239:7687.
Rose, S. J., Burnside, O. C., Specht, J. E., and Swisher, B. A. 1984. Competition and allelopathy between soybeans and weeds. Agron. J. 76:523528.
Selleck, G. W. and Dallyn, S. L. 1978. Herbicide treatments and potato cultivar interactions. Proc. Northeast Weed Sci. Soc. 32:152156.
Smith, B. S., Murray, D. S., and Weeks, D. L. 1990. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol. 4:799803.
Spencer, N. R. 1984. Velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti (malvaceae), history and economic impact in the United States. Econ. Bot. 38:407416.
Spitters, C.J.T. 1989. Weeds: population dynamics, germination and competition. Pages 182216 In Rabbinge, R., Ward, S. A., and van Laar, H. H., eds. Simulation and System Management in Crop Protection. Simulation Monographs. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Pudoc.
Staniforth, D. W. 1961. Responses of corn hybrids to yellow foxtail competition. Weeds 9:132136.
Sweet, R. D., Yip, C. P., and Sieczka, J. B. 1974. Crop cultivars: can they suppress weeds? N.Y. Food Life Sci. Q. 7:35.
Weaver, S. E., Kropff, M., and Groeneveld, R.M.W. 1992. Use of ecophysiological models for crop-weed interference: the critical period of weed interference. Weed Sci. 40:302307.
Weaver, S. E., Smits, N., and Tan, C. S. 1987. Estimating yield losses of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) caused by nightshade (Solanum spp.) interference. Weed Sci. 35:163168.
Wicks, G. A., Nordquist, P. T., Hanson, G. E., and Schmidt, J. W. 1994. Influence of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars on weed control in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Sci. 42:2734.
Yip, C. P., Sweet, R. D., and Sieczka, J. B. 1974. Competitive ability of potato cultivars with major weeds. Proc. Northeast Weed Sci. Soc. 28:271281.


Tolerance of tomato cultivars to velvetleaf interference

  • Mathieu Ngouajio (a1), Milton E. McGiffen and Kurt J. Hembree (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed