Aerial applications of pelleted tebuthiuron (N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N, N′-dimethylurea} at 1 kg/ha to rangeland reduced canopy cover of the subshrub false broomweed (Ericameria austrotexana M.C. Johnst.) by 69 to 78%. Complete control was obtained with 2 kg/ha of tebuthiuron. Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) pellets applied at 2 kg/ha controlled false broomweed in two of four experiments; effectiveness of soil-applied picloram appeared to depend upon sufficient rainfall to move the herbicide into the soil soon after treatment. After the first growing season following application, density of herbaceous species tended to be higher in plots receiving either herbicide than in untreated plots. Picloram suppressed curlymesquite [Hilaria berlangeri (Steud.) Nash], but had little effect on other components of the herbaceous vegetation. Abundance of curlymesquite increased substantially following applications of tebuthiuron, at the expense of annual and short-lived perennial grasses and herbaceous broadleaf species.