Skip to main content Accessibility help

Localization of Atrazine in Corn (Zea mays), Oat (Avena sativa), and Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Leaf Cells

  • Robert F. Norris (a1) and Ivy E. Fong (a1)


Corn (Zea mays L. ‘DeKalb 640′), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ‘Light red’) and oats (Avena sativa L. ‘Kanota’) were grown in solution culture and the roots exposed to radioactively labeled atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine]. The radioactivity from 3H-atrazine, or its metabolites, was located in microautoradiographs of corn leaf sections, almost exclusively at the perimeter of the vascular bundles, and was primarily confined to the cell walls and intercellular spaces, with no activity associated with subcellular organelles. Radioactivity from 3H-atrazine in oat leaf section microautoradiographs was primarily associated with the chloroplasts, with no evidence of radioactivity specifically associated with other subcellular organelles. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of homogenized leaf tissue following exposure of the plants to 14C-atrazine showed that most of the radioactivity was associated with the light cell fragments and cytoplasm for the test species. There was no accumulation of 14C-activity in any of the heavier subcellular organelles from corn leaf cells. A peak of radioactivity was associated with the chloroplast fraction from oat and kidney bean leaves.



Hide All
1. Ashton, F. M. and Crafts, A. S. 1981. The mode of action of herbicides. 2nd ed., Wiley Interscience, New York. 535.
2. Ashton, F. M., Gifford, E. M. Jr., and Bisalputra, T. 1963. Structural changes in Phaseolus vulgaris induced by atrazine. II. Effect on fine structure of chloroplasts. Bot. Gaz. 124:336343.
3. Bowen, M. R., Wilkins, M. B., Crane, A. R., and McCorquodale, I. 1972. Auxin transport in roots. VIII. The distribution of radioactivity in the tissue of Zea root segments. Planta 105:273292.
4. Brewer, P. E., Arntzen, C. J., and Slife, F. W. 1979. Effects of atrazine, cyanazine, and procyazine on the photochemical reactions of isolated chloroplasts. Weed Sci. 27:300308.
5. Chayen, J., Cunningham, C. J., Gahan, P. B., and Silcox, A. A. 1960. Life-like preservation of cytoplasmic detail in plant cells. Nature 186:10601069.
6. Crafts, A. S. and Crisp, C. E. 1971. Phloem transport in plants. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 481.
7. Crafts, A. S. and Yamaguchi, S. 1963. The autoradiography of plant material. Cal. Agric. Exp. Stn., Bull. no. 35. 143.
8. Foy, C. L. 1964. Volatility and tracer studies with alkylamino-s-triazines. Weeds 12:103108.
9. Funderburk, H. H. Jr. and Davis, D. E. 1963. The metabolism of 14C-chain and ring-labeled simazine by corn and the effect of atrazine on plant respiratory systems. Weeds 11:101104.
10. Gunther, F. A. and Gunther, J. D. 1976. Effects of triazine herbicides on the physiology of plants. Residue Rev. 65:1103.
11. Hoagland, D. R. and Arnon, D. I. 1950. The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Calif. Agric. Exp. Stn. Circ. no. 347. 32.
12. Jensen, W. A. 1962. Botanical histochemistry. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 408.
13. Lamoureux, G. L., Shimabukuro, R. H., Swanson, C. R., and Frear, D. S. 1970. The metabolism of 2-chloro-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) in excised sorghum leaf sections. J. Agric. Food Chem. 18:8186.
14. Liao, S. H. and Hamilton, R. H. 1966. Intracellular localization of growth hormones in plants. Science 151:822824.
15. Montgomery, M. and Freed, V. H. 1964. Metabolism of triazine herbicides by plants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 12:1114.
16. Moreland, D. E. and Hill, K. L. 1962. Interference of herbicides with the Hill reaction of isolated chloroplasts. Weeds 10:229236.
17. Moreland, D.E. and Hilton, J. L. 1976. Actions on photosynthetic systems. Pages 493523 in Audus, L. J., ed. Herbicides-Physiology, Biochemistry, Ecology. Vol. 1. Academic Press Inc., London.
18. Norris, R. F. and Bukovac, M. J. 1968. Structure of the pear leaf cuticle with special reference to cuticular penetration. Am. J. Bot. 55:975983.
19. O'Donovan, J. T. and Vanden Born, W. H. 1981. A microradioautographic study of 14C-labeled picloram distribution in soybean following root uptake. Can. J. Bot. 59:19281931.
20. Pickering, E. R. 1966. Autoradiography of mobile 14C-labeled herbicides in sections of leaf tissue. Stain Technol. 41:131137.
21. Sabnis, D. D., Hirshberg, G., and Jacobs, W. P. 1969. Radioautographic analysis of the distribution of label from 3H-indole acetic acid supplied to isolated Coleus internodes. Plant Physiol. 44:2734.
22. Sanderson, J. 1972. Micro-autoradiography of diffusible ions in plant tissues: problems and methods. J. Microsc. 96:245254.
23. Sass, J. E. 1958. Botanical Microtechnique. 3rd ed., The Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. p. 18.
24. Sheets, T. J. 1961. Uptake and distribution of simazine by oat and cotton seedlings. Weeds 9:113.
25. Shimabukuro, R. H. 1967. Significance of atrazine dealkylation in root and shoot of pea plants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 15:557562.
26. Shimabukuro, R. H. 1967. Atrazine metabolism and herbicidal selectivity. Plant Physiol. 42:12691276.
27. Shimabukuro, R. H. 1968. Atrazine metabolism in resistant corn and sorghum. Plant Physiol. 43:19251930.
28. Shimabukuro, R. H. and Swanson, C. R. 1969. Atrazine metabolism, selectivity and mode of action. J. Agric. Food Chem. 17:199205.
29. Strang, R. H. and Rogers, R. L. 1971. A microradioautographic study of 14C-diuron absorption by cotton. Weed Sci. 19:355362.
30. Strang, R. H. and Rogers, R. L. 1971. A microradioautographic study of 14C-trifluralin absorption. Weed Sci. 19:363369.
31. Whitehouse, R. L. and Zalik, S. 1967. Autoradiographic evidence of tritiated indolyl-3-acetic acid in epicotyl tissue of Phaseolus coccineus . Experientia 23:387.


Localization of Atrazine in Corn (Zea mays), Oat (Avena sativa), and Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Leaf Cells

  • Robert F. Norris (a1) and Ivy E. Fong (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed