Skip to main content Accessibility help

Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica)

  • Chin-Hong Ng (a1), Wickneswary Ratnam (a1), Salmijah Surif (a1) and B. S. Ismail


The inheritance of glyphosate-resistant goosegrass was studied by making reciprocal crosses between resistant (R) and susceptible (S) biotypes. Eighty-four F1 hybrids were confirmed using isozyme analyses. Reciprocal F1 hybrids displayed uniform levels of resistance intermediate (I) to that of the parental types, with no indication of maternal inheritance. The F1 hybrids were selfed to produce F2 populations. F3 populations were produced by selfing resistant and intermediate F2 phenotypes. A segregation ratio of 1:2:1 (S:I:R) was observed in the F2 and subsequently in the F3 generations derived from selfing intermediate F2 phenotypes. Individuals in F3 families derived from selfing resistant F2 phenotypes were resistant. Results from the present study show that glyphosate resistance in goosegrass is inherited as a single, nuclear, and incompletely dominant gene.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia;


Hide All
Baerson, S. R., Rodriguez, D. J., Tran, M., Feng, Y., Biest, N. A., and Dill, G. M. 2002. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass. Identification of a mutation in the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. Plant Physiol 129:12651275.
Baird, W. V., Langner, C. A., Wells, J., Tucker, K., Whitwell, T., and Werth, C. R. 1992. Dinitroaniline resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] from the southeastern United States: characterization of biotypes and population genetic analysis. Am. J. Bot 79:8990.
Barnes, D. E. and Chan, L. G. 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and Their Control. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ancom Berhad. Pp. 3839.
Beckie, H. J., Heap, I. M., Smeda, R. J., and Hall, L. M. 2000. Screening for herbicide resistance in weeds. Weed Technol 14:428445.
Boutsalis, P. and Powles, S. B. 1995. Inheritance and mechanism of resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase in Sonchus oleraceus L. Theor. Appl. Genet 91:242247.
Chauvel, B. and Gasquez, J. 1994. Relationships between genetic polymorphism and herbicide resistance within Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. Heredity 72:336344.
Christoffers, M. J. 1999. Genetic aspects of herbicide-resistant weed management. Weed Technol 13:647652.
Darmency, H. 1994. Genetics of herbicide resistance in weeds and crops. Pages 263297 in Powles, S. B. and Holtum, J.A.M. eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.
Diggle, A. J. and Neve, P. 2001. The population dynamics and genetics of herbicide resistance—a modeling approach. Pages 61100 in Powles, S. B. and Shane, D. L. eds. Herbicide Resistance and World Grain. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.
Douglas, B. J., Thomas, A. G., Morrison, I. N., and Maw, M. G. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 70. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci 65:669690.
Fehr, W. R. 1980. Artificial hybridization and self-pollination. Pages 105132 in Fehr, W. R. and Hadley, H. H. eds. Hybridization of Crop Plants. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America.
Gressel, J. 2002. Molecular Biology of Weed Control. London: Taylor and Francis. Pp. 78121.
Heap, I. M. 1999. International survey of herbicide-resistant weeds: lessons and implications. Brighton Crop Protection Conf.—Weeds. Surrey, U.K.: British Crop Protection Council. Pp. 769776.
Heap, I. M. 2003. International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds.
Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., and Herberger, J. P. 1977. The World's Worst Weeds—Distribution and Biology. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. Pp. 4753.
Jasieniuk, M., Brule-Babel, A. L., and Morrison, I. N. 1994. Inheritance of trifluralin resistance in green foxtail (Setaria viridis). Weed Sci 42:123127.
Jasieniuk, M., Brule-Babel, A. L., and Morrison, I. N. 1996. The evolution and genetics of herbicide resistance in weeds. Weed Sci 44:176193.
Leach, G. E., Devine, M. D., Kirkwood, R. C., and Marshall, G. 1995. Target enzyme-based resistance to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitors in Eleusine indica . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol 51:129136.
Lim, J. L. and Ngim, J. 2000. A first report of glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn] in Malaysia. Pest Manag. Sci 56:336339.
Lorraine-Colwill, D. F., Powles, S. B., Hawkes, T. R., Hollinshead, P. H., Warner, S. A. J., and Preston, C. 2003. Investigations into the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol 74:6272.
Lorraine-Colwill, D. F., Powles, S. B., Hawkes, T. R., and Preston, C. 2001. Inheritance of evolved glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum (Gaud). Theor. Appl. Genet 102:545550.
Macnair, M. R. 1991. Why the evolution of resistance to anthropogenic toxins normally involves major gene changes: the limits to natural selection. Genetica 84:213219.
Maxwell, B. D. and Mortimer, A. M. 1994. Selection for herbicide resistance. Pages 125 in Powles, S. B. and Holtum, J.A.M. eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.
Mudge, L. C., Gossett, B. J., and Murphy, T. R. 1984. Resistance of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) to dinitroaniline herbicides. Weed Sci 32:591594.
Murray, B. G., Morrison, I. N., and Brule-Babel, A. L. 1995. Inheritance of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor resistance in wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci 43:233238.
Ng, C. H., Wickneswari, R., Salmijah, S., Teng, Y. T., and Ismail, B. S. 2003. Gene polymorphisms in glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible biotypes of Eleusine indica from Malaysia. Weed Res 43:108115.
Powles, S. B., Lorraine-Colwill, D. F., Dellow, J. J., and Preston, C. 1998. Evolved resistance to glyphosate in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in Australia. Weed Sci 46:604607.
Ryan, G. F. 1970. Resistance of common groundsel to simazine and atrazine. Weed Sci 18:614616.
Samuels, M. L. and Witmer, J. A. 1999. Statistics for the Life Sciences. New York: Prentice Hall. Pp. 383388.
Seefeldt, S. S., Jensen, J. E., and Fuerst, E. P. 1995. Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationship. Weed Technol 9:218227.
Steinrucken, H. and Amrhein, N. 1980. The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 94:12071212.
Teng, Y. T. and Teo, K. C. 1999. Weed control and management of resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in Malaysia. Proc. 1 (B), 17th Asian– Pacific Weed Science Society conference. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian– Pacific Weed Science Society. Pp. 753758.
Thompson, C. R., Thill, D. C., Mallory-Smith, C. A., and Shafii, B. 1994. Characterization of chlorsulfuron resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Technol 8:470476.
Tran, M., Baerson, S., and Brinker, R. et al. 1999. Characterization of glyphosate resistant Eleusine indica biotypes from Malaysia. 569 Proc. 1 (B), 17th Asian–Pacific Weed Science Society conference. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian–Pacific Weed Science Society. Pp. 527536.
Valverde, B. E., Chaves, L., Gonzales, J., and Garita, I. 1993. Field evolved imazapyr resistance in Ixophorus unisetus and Eleusine indica in Costa Rica. Brighton Crop Protection conf.—Weeds. Volume 3. Surrey, U.K. Pp. 11891194.
Werth, C. R., Hilu, K. W., and Langner, C. A. 1994. Isozymes of Eleusine (Gramineae) and the origin of finger millet. Am. J. Bot 81:11861197.
Wickneswari, R. and Norwati, M. 1991. Techniques for starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes from acacias. in Proceeding of the Breeding Technologies for Tropical Acacias. Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research. Pp. 88100.
Zar, J. H. 1999. Testing for goodness of fit. Pages 461483 in Biostatistical Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Zeng, L. and Baird, W. V. 1997. Genetic basis of dinitroaniline herbicide resistance in a highly resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica). J. Hered 88:427432.


Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica)

  • Chin-Hong Ng (a1), Wickneswary Ratnam (a1), Salmijah Surif (a1) and B. S. Ismail


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed