Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Growth and Seed Production of Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Populations after Exposure to Postemergence 2,4-D

  • Greg R. Kruger (a1), Vince M. Davis (a1), Stephen C. Weller (a2) and William G. Johnson (a1)

Abstract

Horseweed can be a problematic weed in no-till soybean fields and populations can vary in their response to 2,4-D. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and seed production of four horseweed populations after exposure to 2,4-D. 2,4-D amine was applied at 0, 140, 280, and 560 g ae ha−1 to 5- to 10-cm-tall horseweed plants. An additional treatment of 280 g ha−1 of 2,4-D + 840 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate was included in the study. At 2 wk after treatment (WAT), injury ranged from 47 to 98%, but by 6 WAT the injury ranged from 89 to 100% for all four populations. Between 6 and 12 WAT some individual horseweed plants started to recover. No differences in dry weights were observed between the four populations in the untreated checks at 0, 2, 6, and 12 WAT. At 280 g ha−1 of 2,4-D amine, seed production was reduced by greater than 95%. However, three of the four horseweed populations had plants that survived and produced seed after exposure to 840 g ha−1 of glyphosate + 280 g ha−1 of 2,4-D. One plant produced seed after exposure to 560 g ha−1 of 2,4-D. These results suggest that horseweed can evolve resistance to 2,4-D and no fitness penalities were observed in populations that had higher levels of tolerance to 2,4-D.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: wgj@purdue.edu

References

Hide All
Bhowmik, P. C. and Bekech, M. M. 1993. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) seed production, emergence and distribution in no-tillage and conventional-tillage corn (Zea mays). Trends Agric. Sci. 1:6771.
Bruce, J. A. and Kells, J. J. 1990. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control in no-tillage soybeans (Glycine max) with preplant and preemergence herbicides. Weed Technol. 4:642647.
Burke, I. C., Yenish, J., Pittmann, D., and Gallagher, R. 2008. 2,4-D resistant prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) in Washington. Page. 21. in. 48th Weed Science Society of America. Chicago, IL Weed Science Society of America.
Childs, D., Jordan, T. N., and Blackwell, R. L. 1997. Survey of problem weeds in Indiana: 1996 Purdue University Cooperative Extension Services.
[CTIC] Conservation Technology Information Center 2004. National Crop Residue Management Survey Conservation Tillage Data. www.ctic.purdue.edu/CTIC/CRM.htm. Accessed: January 28, 2008.
Dauer, J. T., Mortensen, D. A., and VanGessel, M. J. 2007. Temporal and spatial dynamics of long-distance Conyza canadensis seed dispersal. J. Appl. Ecol. 44:105114.
Davis, V. M., Gibson, K. D., Bauman, T. T., Weller, S. C., and Johnson, W. G. 2007. Influence of weed management practices and crop rotation on glyphosate-resistant horseweed population dynamics and crop yield. Weed Sci. 55:508516.
Davis, V. M., Gibson, K. D., Bauman, T. T., Weller, S. C., and Johnson, W. G. 2009a. Influence of weed management practices and crop rotation on glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) population dynamics and crop yield-years III and IV. Weed Sci. 57:417426.
Davis, V. M., Gibson, K. D., and Johnson, W. G. 2008. A field survey to determine distribution and frequency of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in Indiana. Weed Technol. 22:331338.
Davis, V. M. and Johnson, W. G. 2008. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) emergence, survival, and fecundity in no-till soybean. Weed Sci. 56:231236.
Davis, V. M., Kruger, G. R., Stachler, J. M., Loux, M. M., and Johnson, W. G. 2009b. Growth and seed production of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) populations resistant to glyphosate, ALS-inhibiting, and multiple (glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting) herbicides. Weed Sci. 57:494504.
Gibson, K. D., Johnson, W. G., and Hillger, D. E. 2005. Farmer perceptions of problematic corn and soybean weeds in Indiana. Weed Technol. 19:10651070.
Gleason, H. A. and Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. New York New York Botanical Garden. 592 p.
Green, J. M. 2007. Review of glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicide crop resistance and resistant weed management. Weed Technol. 21:547558.
Gressel, J. 1995. Creeping resistances: the outcome of using marginally effective or reduced rates of herbicides. Pages. 587589. in. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference—Weeds.
Heap, I. 2009. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. www.weedscience.com. Accessed: February 5, 2009.
Johnson, B., Barnes, J., Gibson, K., and Weller, S. 2004. Late-season weed escapes in Indiana soybean fields Crop Manage. DOI: 10.1094/cm-2004-0923-01-BR.
Johnson, W. G., Davis, V. M., Kruger, G. R., and Weller, S. C. 2009. Influence of glyphosate-resistant cropping systems on weed species shifts and glyphosate-resistant weed populations. Eur. J. Agron. 31:162172.
Knezevic, S. Z., Streibig, J. C., and Ritz, C. 2007. Utilizing R software package for dose–response studies: the concept and data analysis. Weed Technol. 21:840848.
Koger, C. H., Poston, D. H., Hayes, R. M., and Montgomery, R. F. 2004. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in Mississippi. Weed Technol. 18:820825.
Kruger, G. R., Davis, V. M., Johnson, W. G., and Weller, S. C. 2008a. Response of selceted Indiana horseweed (Conzya canadensis) populations to glyphosate and cloransulam. Page. 124. in. Proceedings of the Proc. N. Cent. Weed Sci. Soc.
Kruger, G. R., Davis, V. M., Weller, S. C., and Johnson, W. G. 2008b. Response and survival of rosette-stage horseweed (Conyza canadensis) after exposure to 2,4-D. Weed Sci. 56:748752.
Kruger, G. R., Davis, V. M., Weller, S. C., Stachler, J. M., Loux, M. M., and Johnson, W. G. 2009a. Frequency, distribution, and characterization of horseweed biotypes with resistance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci. 57:652659.
Kruger, G. R., Johnson, W. G., Weller, S. C., Owen, M. D. K., Shaw, D. R., Wilcut, J. W., Jordan, D. L., Wilson, R. G., and Young, B. G. 2009b. U.S. grower views on problematic weeds and changes in weed pressure in glyphosate-resistant corn, cotton, and soybean cropping systems. Weed Technol. 22:162166.
Littell, R. C., Milliken, G. A., Stroup, W. W., Wolfinger, R. D., and Schabenberger, O. 2006. SAS for Mixed Models. 2nd ed. Cary, NC SAS Institute. 795 p.
Main, C. L., Mueller, T. C., Hayes, R. M., and Wilerson, J. B. 2004. Response of selected horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L) Cronq) populations to glyphosate J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:879883.
Nandula, V. K., Eubank, T. W., Poston, D. H., Koger, C. H., and Reddy, K. N. 2006. Factors affecting germination of horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Weed Sci. 54:898902.
Nice, G. and Johnson, B. 2005. Indiana's top ten most problematic weeds. www.btny.purdue.edu/WeedScience/2005/topten05.pdf. Accessed: January 27, 2008.
Owen, M. D. K. 2008. Weed species shifts in glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Manage. Sci. 64:377387.
Regehr, D. L. and Bazzaz, F. A. 1979. The population dynamics of Erigeron canadensis, a successional winter annual. J. Ecol. 67:923933.
Sammons, R. D., Heering, D. C., Dinicola, N., Glick, H., and Elmore, G. A. 2007. Sustainability and stewardship of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol. 21:347354.
Sankula, S. 2006. Quantification of the impacts on U.S. agriculture of biotechnology-derived crops planted in 2005. www.ncfap.org/whatwedo/pdf/2005biotecimpacts-finalversion.pdf. Accessed: June 27, 2007.
Saxton, A. M. 1998. A macro for converting mean separation output to letter groupings in Proc Mixed. Pages. 12431246. in. Proceedings of the 23rd SAS Users Group International. Cary, NC SAS Institute.
Shields, E. J., Dauer, J. T., VanGessel, M. J., and Neumann, G. 2006. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) seed collected in the planetary boundary layer. Weed Sci. 54:10631067.
Stachler, J. M., Kells, J. J., and Penner, D. 2000. Resistance of wild carrot (Daucus carota) to 2,4-D in Michigan. Weed Technol. 14:734739.
VanGessel, M. J., Ayeni, A. O., and Majek, B. A. 2001. Glyphosate in full-season no-till glyphosate-resistant soybean: role of preplant applications and residual herbicides. Weed Technol. 15:714724.
Weaver, S. E. 2001. The biology of Canadian weeds. 115. Can. J. Plant Sci. 81:867875.
Whitworth, J. W. and Muzik, T. J. 1966. Differential response of selected clones of bindweed to 2,4-D. Weeds. 15:275280.
Wright, T. R., Lira, J. M., Merlo, D. J., and Hopkins, N. 2005. Novel herbicide resistance genes. World patent Appl. No. 107,437.

Keywords

Growth and Seed Production of Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Populations after Exposure to Postemergence 2,4-D

  • Greg R. Kruger (a1), Vince M. Davis (a1), Stephen C. Weller (a2) and William G. Johnson (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed