Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Germination ecology for Florida populations of carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum), eclipta (Eclipta prostrata), and goosegrass (Eleusine indica)

  • Shaun M. Sharpe (a1) and Nathan S. Boyd (a2)

Abstract

Row-middle weed control in Florida vegetable production is challenging and often necessitates several PRE and POST herbicide applications. Coordinating POST spray applications with emergence timings should increase herbicide efficacy by targeting susceptible growth stages. Most published emergence models were developed in temperate climates, and adapting them to subtropical climates can be complex and requires reductionist insights into seed ecology, particularly germination and dormancy. The study objective was to examine the influence of temperature and osmotic potential on seed germination of carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata L.), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.), eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.], and goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.]. Mollugo verticillata seed germination was positively photoblastic, with increased germination at high temperatures (≥35 C), more so with high fluctuating temperatures (35/20 and 35/25 C), and occurred at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Geranium carolinianum seed germinated between 10 and 20 C in light or darkness and at osmotic potentials as low as −0.4 MPa. Eclipta prostrata seed germination was entirely positively photoblastic, occurring optimally between 15 and 25 C and at osmotic potentials as low as −1 MPa. Eleusine indica seed germination demonstrated some degree of positive photoblasticity, with greater germination in the light, peak germination at 35 C, and germination occurring at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Described germination ecology for selected species will provide insights for building ecology-based growing degree-day accounting restrictions for empirically derived emergence models.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Nathan S. Boyd, Email: nsboyd@ufl.edu

References

Hide All
Altom, JV, Murray, DS (1996) Factors affecting eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) seed germination. Weed Technol 10:727731
Baskin, JM, Baskin, CC (1974) Some eco-physiological aspects of seed dormancy in Geranium carolinianum L. from central Tennessee. Oecologia 16:209219
Baskin, JM, Baskin, CC (2004) A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Sci Res 14:116
Bewick, TA, Kostewicz, SR, Stall, WM, Shilling, DG, Smith, K (1990) Interaction of cupric hydroxide, paraquat, and biotype of American black nightshade (Solanum americanum). Weed Sci 38:634638
Boranno, AR (1996) Weed management in plasticulture. HortTechnology 6:186189
Boyd, NS (2016) Pre- and postemergence herbicides for row middle weed control in vegetable plasticulture production systems. Weed Technol 30:949957
Buker, RS, Steed, ST, Stall, WM (2002) Confirmation and control of a paraquat-tolerant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) biotype. Weed Technol 16:309313
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2008a) Germination ecology of goosegrass (Eleusine indica): an important grass weed of rainfed rice. Weed Sci 56:699706
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2008b) Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) in a tropical environment. Weed Sci 56:383388
Cheplick, GP (2006) Seed rain, transient seed banks, and seedling recruitment of annuals on a coastal beach. J Torrey Bot Soc 133:379392
Freeman, S, Horowitz, S, Sharon, A (2001) Pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in Colletotrichum acutatum from strawberry and other plants. Phytopathology 91:986992
Freeman, J, McAvoy, E, Boyd, N, Kinessary, R, Ozores-Hampton, M, Smith, H, Noling, J, Vallad, G (2017) Tomato production. Pages 329372 in Vallad, GE, Smith, HA, Dittmar, PJ, Freeman, JH, eds. Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida 2017–2018. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida
Fulwider, JR, Engel, RE (1959) The effect of temperature and light on germination of seed of goosegrass, Eleusine indica. Weeds 7:359361
Gama-Arachchige, NS, Baskin, JM, Geneve, RL, Baskin, CC (2010) Identification and characterization of the water gap in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with special reference to Geranium carolinianum. Ann Bot 105:977990
Gama-Arachchige, NS, Baskin, JM, Geneve, RL, Baskin, CC (2011) Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle-water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). Ann Bot 108:5164
Gilreath, JP, Santos, BM (2004) Efficacy of methyl bromide alternatives on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) control in tomato and pepper. Weed Technol 18:341345
Gross, KL (1990) A comparison of methods for estimating seed numbers in the soil. J Ecol:10791093
Grundy, AC (2003) Predicting weed emergence: a review of approaches and future challenges. Weed Res 43:111
Haar, MJ, Fennimore, SA, Ajwa, HA, Winterbottom, CQ (2003) Chloropicrin effect on weed seed viability. Crop Prot 22:109115
Hawton, D, Drennan, DSH (1980) Studies on the longevity and germination of seed of Eleusine indica and Crotalaria goreensis. Weed Res 20:217223
Hereford, J, Schmitt, J, Ackerly, DD (2017) The seasonal climate niche predicts phenology and distribution of an ephemeral annual plant, Mollugo verticillata. J Ecol 105:13231334
Ismail, BS, Chuah, TS, Salmijah, S, Teng, YT, Schumacher, RW (2002) Germination and seedling emergence of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of goosegrass (Eleusine indica [L.] Gaertn.). Weed Biol Manag 2:177185
Jordan, DL, Lancaster, SH, Lanier, JE, Lassiter, BR, Johnson, PD (2009) Peanut and eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) response to flumioxazin. Weed Technol 23:231235
Kitajima, K, Tilman, D (1996) Seed banks and seedling establishment on an experimental productivity gradient. Oikos 76:381391
Martinson, K, Durgan, B, Forcella, F, Wiersma, J, Spokas, K, Archer, D (2007) An emergence model for wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci 55:584591
Masin, R, Zuin, MC, Archer, DW, Forcella, F, Zanin, G (2005) WeedTurf: a predictive model to aid control of annual summer weeds in turf. Weed Sci 53:193201
Masin, R, Zuin, MC, Otto, S, Zanin, G (2006) Seed longevity and dormancy of four summer annual grass weeds in turf. Weed Res 46:362370
Michel, BE (1983) Evaluation of the water potentials of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiol 72:6670
Nishimoto, RK, McCarty, LB (1997) Fluctuating temperature and light influence seed germination of goosegrass (Eleusine indica). Weed Sci 45:426429
Norsworthy, JK (2008) Effect of tillage intensity and herbicide programs on changes in weed species density and composition in the southeastern coastal plains of the United States. Crop Prot 27:151160
Reed, T V, Boyd, NS, Wilson, PC, Dittmar, PJ, Sharpe, SM (2018) Persistence and movement of fomesafen in Florida strawberry production. Weed Sci 66:773779
Royo-Esnal, A, Torra, J, Conesa, JA, Forcella, F, Recasens, J (2010) Modeling the emergence of three arable bedstraw (Galium) species. Weed Sci 58:1015
Sharpe, SM, Boyd, NS (2019a) Black medic (Medicago lupulina) emergence and prediction within Florida strawberry fields. Weed Sci 67:253260. doi: 10.1017/wsc.2018.69
Sharpe, SM, Boyd, NS (2019b) Black medic (Medicago lupulina) germination response to temperature and osmotic potential, and a novel growing degree-day estimation for heat-limited germination. Weed Sci 67:246252. https://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2018.68.
Sharpe, SM, Boyd, NS, Dittmar, PJ, MacDonald, GE, Darnell, RL, Ferrell, JA (2018) Control recommendations for black medic (Medicago lupulina) based on growth and development in competition with strawberry. Weed Sci 66:226233
Townshend, JL, Davidson, TR (1960) Some weed hosts of Pratylenchus penetrans in premier strawberry plantations. Can J Bot 38:267273
[USDA-NASS] U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service (2018) Quick Stats. https://quickstats.nass.usda.gov. Accessed: August 22, 2018
Uzun, F, Aydin, I (2004) Improving germination rate of Medicago and Trifolium species. Asian J Plant Sci 3:714717
Van Assche, JA, Vandelook, FEA (2006) Germination ecology of eleven species of Geraniaceae and Malvaceae, with special reference to the effects of drying seeds. Seed Sci Res 16:283290
Van Assche, JA, Vandelook, FEA (2010) Combinational dormancy in winter annual Fabaceae. Seed Sci Res 20:237242
Vleeshouwers, LM, Kropff, MJ (2000) Modelling field emergence patterns in arable weeds. New Phytol 148:445457
Werle, R, Sandell, LD, Buhler, DD, Hartzler, RG, Lindquist, JL (2014) Predicting emergence of 23 summer annual weed species. Weed Sci 62:267279
Whitaker, VM, Boyd, NS, Peres, NA, Noling, JW, Renkem, J (2017) Strawberry production. Pages 293312 in Vallad, GE, Smith, HA, Dittmar, PJ, Freeman, JH, eds. Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida 2017–2018. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida

Keywords

Germination ecology for Florida populations of carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum), eclipta (Eclipta prostrata), and goosegrass (Eleusine indica)

  • Shaun M. Sharpe (a1) and Nathan S. Boyd (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed