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Gene flow, growth, and competitiveness of imazethapyr-resistant common sunflower

  • Michael W. Marshall (a1), Kassim Al-Khatib and Thomas Loughin (a2)


This study was conducted to ascertain movement potential of imazethapyr resistance and to measure the relative growth and productivity of imazethapyr-resistant (IR) and imazethapyr-susceptible (IS) biotypes of common sunflower under noncompetitive and competitive conditions. Susceptible biotypes of common sunflower were planted in the field in concentric circles at distances of 5.5, 8.0, 15.0, and 30.0 m around a center of densely planted IR biotypes in four locations in northeast Kansas in 1998 and 1999. Pollen movement was analyzed by sampling the IS progeny for the presence of imazethapyr resistance. The distance in which resistance is first detected from the IR pollen source, first unnatural resistant distance (FURD), ranged from 12.1 to 15.5 m. Wind direction was highly correlated with FURD; the north sections had larger FURD. Greenhouse studies were conducted to study growth of IR and IS biotypes under noncompetitive and competitive conditions. Under noncompetitive conditions, leaf area and dry weight were slightly greater for the IR than the IS biotype at early growth stages, but photosynthesis and height were similar. Under competitive conditions, photosynthesis, leaf area, height, and dry weight of IR and IS biotypes were similar. As a result, IR–IR and IS–IS intracompetition equaled IR–IS intercompetition. Gene flow from IR to IS biotypes occurred with movement up to 15.5 m. The lack of differences between growth of the IR and IS biotype at late growth stages in noncompetitive conditions and similar growth of IR and IS biotypes under competitive conditions indicated no competitive advantage from imazethapyr resistance.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506;


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Gene flow, growth, and competitiveness of imazethapyr-resistant common sunflower

  • Michael W. Marshall (a1), Kassim Al-Khatib and Thomas Loughin (a2)


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