Skip to main content Accessibility help

Evaluation of rice by-products for weed control

  • Yong-In Kuk (a1), Nilda R. Burgos and Ronald E. Talbert (a1)


Rice by-products were evaluated in the greenhouse for herbicidal activity on various weeds and crops. Rice by-products and corn gluten meal (CG) were applied at 0, 125, 250, 500, and 750 g m−2 preemergence (PRE) and preplant incorporated (PPI). The efficacy of rice by-products and CG in reducing weed emergence and shoot weight of broadleaf species was in the order of medium-grain fatty rice bran (MF) > long-grain fatty rice bran (LF) > CG > defatted rice bran (DF) > long-grain hull (LH) > medium-grain hull (MH). For reducing grass emergence, MF = CG > LF > DF > LH > MH, and for shoot weight reduction, CG > MF > LF > LH > DF = MH. Palmer amaranth and ivyleaf morningglory were the most susceptible weeds (91 and 82%) followed by sicklepod, hemp sesbania, and prickly sida (65 to 70%). Velvetleaf was the most tolerant broadleaf weed. Grasses were not as susceptible to rice bran as broadleaf weeds. In general, MF was the best material for reducing weed emergence and its efficacy was not affected by application method. Cotton and corn were the most tolerant direct-seeded crops to MF (6% reduction in plant stand), and soybean, Italian ryegrass, tomato, and rice had intermediate tolerances (30 to 86% stand reduction). Mustard, cucumber, and lettuce were the most susceptible crops (71 to 98% reduction in plant survival). The minimum effective rate was 250 g m−2 MF PPI or PRE.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701;


Hide All
Balogh, J.C. and Anderson, J. L. 1992. Environmental impacts of turfgrass pesticides. Pages 221354. In Balogh, J. C. and Walker, W. J., eds. Golf Course Management and Construction—Environmental Issues. Boca Raton: Lewis.
Barber, S. and De Barber, C. B. 1980. Rice bran: chemistry and technology. Pages 790862. In Luh, B. S., ed. Rice: Production and Utilization. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing.
Barnes, J. P. and Putnam, A. R. 1986. Evidence for allelopathy by residues and aqueous extracts of rye (Secale cereale). Weed Sci. 34:384390.
Bingaman, B. R. and Christians, N. E. 1995. Greenhouse screening of corn gluten meal as a natural control product for broadleaf and grass weeds. HortScience 30:12561259.
Bradow, J. M. and Connick, W. J. Jr. 1990. Volatile seed germination inhibitors from plant residues. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:645666.
Chou, C. H. 1982. Allelopathy in Agroecosystems in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Academica Sinica, Institute of Botany Annual Report. pp. 79.
Chou, C. H. and Lin, H. J. 1976. Autointoxication mechanism of Oryza sativa . I. Phytotoxic effects of decomposing rice residues in soil. J. Chem. Ecol. 2:353367.
Christians, N. E., inventor; Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc., assignee. 1991. Preemergence weed control using corn gluten meal. U.S. patent 5,030,268.
Christians, N. E. 1993. The use of corn gluten meal as a natural preemergence weed control in turf. Pages 284290 In Carrow, R. N., Christians, N. E., and Shearman, R. C., eds. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal. Overland Park, KS: Intertec.
Chung, I. M., Kim, K. H., Ahn, J. K., and Ju, H. J. 1997. Allelopathic potential evaluation of rice varieties on Echinochloa crus-galli . Kor. J. Weed Sci. 17:5258.
Dilday, R. H., Frans, R. E., Semidey, N., Smith, R. J. Jr., and Oliver, L. R. 1992. Weed control with allelopathic rice. Ark. Farm Res. 41:1415.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 1964. Rice bran: utilization and trade. FAO Mon. Bull. Agric. Econ. Stat. 13:914.
Hileman, B. 1990. Alternative agricultural methods, though still used by a minority of farmers, are attracting more attention, and a number of adherents. Chem. Eng. News 68:2640.
Hirano, M., Sugiyama, M., Hatakeyama, Y., Kuroda, E., and Murata, T. 1998. Effect of the application of rice bran on the carbohydrate metabolism in leaves and stems of rice variety Hitomebore cultured with the practice of no nitrogen application at basal dressing accompanied with sparse planting. Jpn. Crop Sci. 67:208215.
Houston, D. F. 1972. Rice bran and polish. Pages 272300 In Houston, D. F., ed. Rice: Chemistry and Technology. St. Paul, MN: First American Association of Cereal Chemistry.
Kim, B. K., Lee, D. J., Kim, B. K., and Lee, D. J. 1996. Varietal difference of viviparity and germination-inhibition of rice hull extracts. Korean Crop Sci. 41:434440.
Lax, A. R., Shepherd, H. S., and Edwards, J. V. 1988. Tentoxin a chlorosis-inducing toxin for Alternaría as a potential herbicide. Weed Technol. 2:540544.
Lee, C. W., Kim, J. C., Chang, Y. H., and Youn, K. B. 1991. Allelopathic effect of barley and rice straw on weed growth. Korean J. Weed Sci. 11:122127.
Lehle, F. R. and Putnam, A. R. 1983. Quantification of allelopathic potential of sorghum residues by novel indexing of Richards’ function fitted to cumulative cress seed germination curves. Plant Physiol. 69:12121216.
Liebl, R. A. and Worsham, A. D. 1983. Inhibition of pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and certain other weed species by phytotoxic components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw. J. Chem. Ecol. 9:10271040.
Liu, D. L. and Christians, N. E. 1994. Isolation and identification of root-inhibiting compounds from corn gluten hydrolysate. J. Plant Growth Reg. 13:227230.
Lydon, J. and Duke, S. O. 1987. Progress toward natural herbicides from plants. Herbs, Spices, Med. Plants Dig. 5:14.
Nonnecke, G. R. and Christians, N. E. 1993. Evaluation of corn gluten meal as a natural weed control product in strawberry. Acta Hortic. 348:315320.
Rice, E. L. 1984. Allelopathy. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press, pp. 6773.
Steinsiek, J. W., Oliver, L. R., and Collins, F. C. 1982. Allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw on selected weed species. Weed Sci. 30:495497.
Tamak, J. C., Narwal, S. S., Singh, L., and Ram, M. 1994a. Effect of aqueous extracts of rice stubbles and straw + stubbles on the germination and seedling growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Avena ludoviciana, and Phalaris minor . Crop Res. 8:186189.
Tamak, J. C., Narwal, S. S., Singh, L., and Singh, I. 1994b. Effect of aqueous extracts of rice stubbles and straw + stubbles on the germination and seedling growth of wheat, oat, berseen, and lentil. Crop Res. 8:180186.
Yoshida, S. 1981. Fundamentals of Rice Crop Science. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. 269 p.
Young, C.C., Zhu Thourne, L. R., and Waller, G. R. 1989. Phytotoxic potential of soils and wheat straw in rice rotation cropping systems of subtropical Taiwan. Plant Soil 120:95101.
Zarcinas, B. A., Cartwright, B., and Spouncer, L. R. 1987. Nitric acid digestion and multi-element analysis of plant material by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 18:131146.


Evaluation of rice by-products for weed control

  • Yong-In Kuk (a1), Nilda R. Burgos and Ronald E. Talbert (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed