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Distribution and Biology of Two Nightshades (Solanum spp.) in Minnesota

  • Laura S. Quakenbush (a1) and Robert N. Andersen (a1)

Abstract

Two species of annual nightshades were commonly found as agronomic weeds in Minnesota. Eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum Dun.), the most common species, was found throughout the southern half of the state. Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides Sendt. ♯3 SOLSA) was found only in a few scattered locations. Eastern black nightshade seedling emergence began in mid-April or early May, and more than 80% of the total yearly emergence occurred before June. Hairy nightshade emergence began in May, but less than 70% of its total yearly emergence occurred before June. Eastern black nightshade berries first contained viable seeds 4 to 5 weeks after flowering of the plants and a week or more before the berries began to turn black. Hairy nightshade generally required a week longer than eastern black nightshade for viable seed production after flowering.

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References

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1. Binning, L. K. 1981. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), a problem weed and its control. Proc. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 26:128.
2. Burgert, K. L., Burnside, O. C., and Fenster, C. R. 1973. Black nightshade leaves its mark. Farm, Ranch, and Home Quarterly (Univ. of Nebraska). 20(3):810.
3. Keeley, P. E. and Thullen, R. J. 1983. Influence of planting date on the growth of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum). Weed Sci. 31:180184.
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5. Roberts, H. A. and Lockett, P. M. 1978. Seed dormancy and field emergence in Solanum nigrum L. Weed Res. 18:231241.
6. Rogers, B. S. and Ogg, A. G. Jr. 1981. Biology of weeds of the Solanum nigrum complex (Solanum section solanum) in North America. U.S. Dep. Agric., Sci. and Education Administration, Agric. Reviews and Manuals ARM-W-23. 30 pp.
7. Schilling, E. E. 1981. Systematics of Solanum section Solanum in North America. Syst. Bot. 6:172185.
8. Weller, R. F. and Phipps, R. H. 1979. A review of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). Protection Ecol. 1:121:139.

Keywords

Distribution and Biology of Two Nightshades (Solanum spp.) in Minnesota

  • Laura S. Quakenbush (a1) and Robert N. Andersen (a1)

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