Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-kfj7r Total loading time: 0.465 Render date: 2022-11-30T03:08:24.711Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Phenotypic diversity of weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) biotypes found in California and implications for management

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 June 2020

Elizabeth Karn
Affiliation:
Staff Research Associate, University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources (UC ANR), Cooperative Extension Sutter–Yuba Counties, Yuba City, CA, USA
Teresa De Leon
Affiliation:
Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Luis Espino
Affiliation:
Cooperative Extension Advisor, University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources (UC ANR), Cooperative Extension Colusa County, Colusa, CA, USA
Kassim Al-Khatib
Affiliation:
Professor and Cooperative Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Whitney Brim-DeForest*
Affiliation:
Cooperative Extension Advisor, University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources (UC ANR), Cooperative Extension Sutter–Yuba Counties, Yuba City, CA, USA
*
Author for correspondence: Whitney Brim-DeForest, University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources (UC ANR), Cooperative Extension Sutter–Yuba Counties, 142A Garden Highway, Yuba City, CA95991. Email: wbrimdeforest@ucdavis.edu

Abstract

Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Rosh.) is an emerging weed of California rice (Oryza sativa L.) that has potential to cause large yield losses. Early detection of weedy rice in the field is ideal to effectively control and prevent the spread of this weed. However, it is difficult to differentiate weedy rice from cultivated rice during early growth stages due to the close genetic and phenotypic relatedness of cultivated rice and weedy rice. The objective of this study is to examine phenotypic variation in weedy rice biotypes from California and to identify traits that could be used to visually identify weedy rice infestations at early growth stages for effective management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 using five phenotypically distinct biotypes of weedy rice found in California, along with diverse cultivated, weedy, and wild rice types in a randomized complete block design. We measured variation for 13 phenotypic traits associated with weedy rice and conducted principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify important weedy traits. Most weedy rice individuals within a biotype clustered together by phenotypic similarity. Pericarp color, hull color, chlorophyll content, grain length, plant height, leaf pubescence, collar color, and leaf sheath color account for most of the observed variation. California weedy rice biotypes are phenotypically distinct from wild rice and from weedy rice from the southern United States in their combinations of seed phenotypes and vegetative characteristics. In comparison with the locally grown temperate japonica cultivars, California weedy rice tends to be taller, with lower chlorophyll content and a red pericarp. Weedy rice biotypes vary in seed shattering and seed dormancy. For weedy rice management, plant height and chlorophyll content are distinct traits that could be used to differentiate weedy rice from the majority of cultivated rice varieties in California during vegetative stages of rice growth.

Type
Research Article
Information
Weed Science , Volume 68 , Issue 5 , September 2020 , pp. 485 - 495
Copyright
© Weed Science Society of America, 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Associate Editor: Muthukumar V. Bagavathiannan, Texas A&M University

References

Bellue, MK (1932) Weeds of California seed rice. California Department of Agriculture Bulletin 21:290–296Google Scholar
Burgos, NR, Norsworthy, JK, Scott, RC, Smith, KL (2008) Red rice status after five years of Clearfield™ rice technology in Arkansas. Weed Technol 22:20020810.1614/WT-07-075.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burgos, NR, Singh, V, Tseng, TM, Black, H, Young, ND, Huang, Z, Hyma, KE, Gealy, DR, Caicedo, AL (2014) The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice. Plant Physiol 166:12081220CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chauhan, BS (2013) Strategies to manage weedy rice in Asia. Crop Prot 48:5156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2010) Weedy rice (Oryza sativa) I. Grain characteristics and growth response to competition of weedy rice variants from five Asian countries. Weed Sci 58:374380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, L, Dai, W, Song, X, Lu, B, Qiang, S (2013) A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice. Pest Manag Sci 70:113122CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Leon, TB, Karn, E, Al-Khatib, K, Espino, L, Blank, T, Andaya, CB, Andaya, VC, Brim-DeForest, W (2019) Genetic variation and possible origins of weedy rice found in California. Ecol Evol 9:58355848CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delouche, JC, Burgos, NR, Gealy, DR, de San Martin, GZ, Labrada, R, Larinde, M, Rosell, C (2007) Weedy rices: origin, biology, ecology and control. Pages 3–15 in Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Plant Production and Protection Paper 188. Rome: FAOGoogle Scholar
Ellstrand, NC, Heredia, SM, Leak-Garcia, JA, Heraty, JM, Burger, JC, Yao, L, Nohzadeh-Malakshah, S, Ridley, CE (2010) Crops gone wild: evolution of weeds and invasives from domesticated ancestors. Evol Appl 3:494504CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Estorninos, LE, Gealy, DR, Gbur, EE, Talbert, RE, McClelland, MR (2005) Rice and red rice interference. II. Rice response to population densities of three red rice (Oryza sativa) ecotypes. Weed Sci 53:683689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Federici, MT, Vaughan, D, Tomooka, N, Kaga, A, Wang, XW, Doi, K, Francis, M, Zorrilla, G, Saldain, N (2001) Analysis of Uruguayan weedy rice genetic diversity using AFLP molecular markers. Electron J Biotechnol 4:4257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fogliato, S, Vidotto, F, Ferrero, A (2011) Morphological characterisation of Italian weedy rice (Oryza sativa) populations. Weed Res 52:6069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gealy, D, Agrama, H, Jia, MH (2012) Genetic analysis of atypical U.S. red rice phenotypes: indications of prior gene flow in rice fields? Weed Sci 60:451461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gealy, DR (2005) Growth, development, and physiological characteristics of selected red rice (Oryza sativa) accessions from Arkansas. Pages 184–200 in Norman RJ, Meullenet JF, Moldenhauer KAK, eds. B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies 2004. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series 529. Fayetteville, AR: University of ArkansasGoogle Scholar
Gealy, DR, Mitten, DH, Rutger, JN (2003) Gene flow between red rice (Oryza sativa) and herbicide-resistant rice (O. sativa): implications for weed management. Weed Technol 17:627645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gealy, DR, Saldain, NE, Talbert, RE (2000) Emergence of red rice (Oryza sativa) ecotypes under dry-seeded rice (Oryza sativa) culture. Weed Technol 14:406412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gealy, DR, Yan, W, Rutger, JN (2006) Red rice (Oryza sativa) plant types affect growth, coloration, and flowering characteristics of first and second generation crosses with rice. Weed Technol 20:839852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goss, W, Brown, E (1939) Buried red rice seed. J Am Soc Agron 31:633637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gressel, J, ed (2005) Crop Ferality and Volunteerism. Boca Raton, FL: CRC. 422 p 10.1201/9781420037999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, BL, Reagon, M, Hsu, SC, Caicedo, AL, Jia, Y, & Olsen, KM (2010) Seeing red: the origin of grain pigmentation in US weedy rice. Mol Ecol 19:33803393CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
He, Q, Kim, KW, Park, YJ (2017) Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice. Plant Biotechnol J 15:357366CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, Z, Kelly, S, Matsuo, R, Li, LF, Li, Y, Olsen, KM, Jia, Y, Caicedo, AL (2018) The role of standing variation in the evolution of weediness traits in South Asian weedy rice (Oryza ssp.) Genes Genom Genet 8:36793690Google Scholar
Huang, Z, Young, ND, Reagon, M, Hyma, KE, Olsen, KM, Jia, Y, Caicedo, AL (2017) All roads lead to weediness: patterns of genomic divergence reveal extensive recurrent weedy rice origins from South Asian Oryza. Mol Ecol 26:31513167CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[IRRI] International Rice Research Institute (2002) Standard Evaluation System for Rice (SES). 4th ed. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. Pp 5–8, 30–38Google Scholar
Kanapeckas, KL, Tseng, TM, Vigueira, CC, Ortiz, A, Bridges, WC, Burgos, NR, Fischer, AJ, Lawton-Rauh, A (2017) Contrasting patterns of variation in weedy traits and unique crop features in divergent populations of US weedy rice (Oryza sativa sp.) in Arkansas and California. Pest Manag Sci 74:14041415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanapeckas, KL, Vigueira, CC, Ortiz, A, Gettler, KA, Burgos, NR, Fischer, AJ (2016) Escape to ferality: the endoferal origin of weedy rice from crop rice through de-domestication. PLoS ONE 11:e0162676CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lancaster, ZD, Norsworthy, JK, Scott, RC (2018) Evaluation of quizalofop-resistant rice for Arkansas rice production systems. Int J Agron 2018:6315865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langevin, SA, Clay, K, Grace, JB (1990) The incidence and effects of hybridization between cultivated rice and its related weed red rice (Oryza sativa L.). Evolution 44:10001008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Londo, JP, Schaal, BA (2007) Origins and population genetics of weedy rice in the USA. Mol Ecol 16:45234535CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKenzie, KS, inventor: California Cooperative Rice Research Foundation, assignee (2017) August 11. Oxyfluorfen resistant rice lines, US patent application number 15/675,183Google Scholar
Merotto, A, Goulart, ICGR, Nunes, AL, Kalsing, A, Markus, C, Menezes, VG, Wander, AE (2016) Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil. Evol Appl 9:837846CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, MD, Brandon, DM (1979) Evolution of California rice culture. Pages 79–116 in Wilson J, ed. Rice in California. Richvale, CA: Butte County Rice Growers AssociationGoogle Scholar
Noldin, JA, Chandler, JM, McCauley, GN (1999) Red rice (Oryza sativa) biology. I. Characterization of red rice ecotypes. Weed Technol 13:1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oerke, EC (2006) Crop losses to pests. J Agric Sci 144:3143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qi, X, Liu, Y, Vigueira, CC, Young, ND, Caicedo, AL, Jia, Y, Gealy, DR, Olsen, KM (2015) More than one way to evolve a weed: parallel evolution of U.S. weedy rice through independent genetic mechanisms. Mol Ecol 24:33293344CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qiu, J, Zhu, J, Fu, F, Ye, C, Wang, W, Mao, L, Lin, Z, Chen, L, Zhang, H, Guo, L, Qiang, S, Lu, Y, Fan, L (2014) Genome re-sequencing suggested a weedy rice origin from domesticated indica-japonica hybridization: a case study from southern China. Planta 240:13531363CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Development Core Team (2019) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org. Accessed: August 1, 2019Google Scholar
Revelle, W (2018) Psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research. Version 1.8.12. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. =https://CRAN.project.org/package=psych. Accessed: August 1, 2019Google Scholar
SAS Institute (2018) The PRINQUAL procedure. Pages 7934–7989 in SAS/STAT® 15.1 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS InstituteGoogle Scholar
Shivrain, VK, Burgos, NR, Gealy, DR, Smith, KL, Scott, RC, Mauromoustakos, A, Black, H (2009) Red rice (Oryza sativa) emergence characteristics and influence on rice yield at different planting dates. Weed Sci 57:94102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shivrain, VK, Burgos, NR, Moldenhauer, KAK, McNew, RW, Baldwin, TL (2006) Characterization of spontaneous crosses between Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) and red rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technol 20:576584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shivrain, VK, Burgos, NR, Scott, RC, Gbur, EE, Estorninos, LE, McClelland, MR (2010) Diversity of weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Arkansas, U.S.A. in relation to weed management. Crop Prot 29:721730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, V, Burgos, NR, Singh, S, Gealy, DR, Gbur, EE, Caicedo, AL (2017a) Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice. Pest Manag Sci 73:604615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, V, Singh, S, Black, H, Boyett, V, Basu, S, Gealy, D, Gbur, E, Pereira, A, Scott, RC, Caicedo, A, Burgos, NR (2017b) Introgression of Clearfield™ rice crops traits into weedy red rice outcrosses. Field Crops Res 207:1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, J, Qian, Q, Ma, DR, Xu, ZJ, Liu, D, Du, HB, Chen, WF (2013) Introgression and selection shaping the genome and adaptive loci of weedy rice in northern China. New Phytol 197:290299CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tan, S, Evans, RR, Dahmer, ML, Singh, BK, Shaner, DL (2005) Imidazolinone-tolerant crops: history, current status and future. Pest Manag Sci 61:246257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thurber, CS, Jia, MH, Jia, Y, Caicedo, AL (2013) Similar traits, different genes? Examining convergent evolution in related weedy rice populations. Mol Ecol 22:685698CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tseng, TM, Burgos, NR, Shivrain, VK, Alcober, EA, Mauromoustakos, A (2013) Inter- and intrapopulation variation in dormancy of Oryza sativa (weedy red rice) and allelic variation in dormancy-linked loci. Weed Res 53:440451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tseng, TM, Shivrain, VK, Lawton-Rauh, A, Burgos, NR (2018) Dormancy-linked population structure of weedy rice (Oryza sp.). Weed Sci 66:331339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[UCCE] University of California Cooperative Extension (2017) Best Management Practices for Weedy Rice. Caweedyrice.com/#publications. Accessed: January 21, 2020Google Scholar
Vaughan, LK, Ottis, BV, Prazak-Havey, AM, Sneller, C, Chandler, JM, Park, WD (2001) Is all red rice found in commercial rice really Oryza sativa? Weed Sci 49:468476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wedger, MJ, Olsen, KM (2018) Evolving insights on weedy rice. Ecol Genet Genom 7–8:2326Google Scholar
Xia, HB, Wang, W, Xia, H, Zhao, W, Lu, BR (2011) Conspecific crop-weed introgression influences evolution of weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) across a geographical range. PLoS ONE 6:e16189CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yoshida, S (1981) Fundamentals of Rice Crop Science. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. 27 pGoogle Scholar
Zhao, C, Xu, W, Song, W, Dai, W, Dai, L, Zhang, Z, Qiang, S (2017) Early flowering and rapid grain filling determine early maturity and escape from harvesting in weedy rice. Pest Manag Sci 74:465476CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ziska, LH, Gealy, DR, Burgos, N, Caicedo, AL, Gressel, J, Lawton-Rauh, AL, Avila, LA, Theisen, G, Norsworthy, J, Ferroro, A, Vidotto, F, Johnson, DE, Ferreira, FG, Marchesan, E, Menezes, V, et al. (2015) Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production. Pages 181–228 in Sparks DL, ed. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 129. San Diego, CA: Academic PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Phenotypic diversity of weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) biotypes found in California and implications for management
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Phenotypic diversity of weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) biotypes found in California and implications for management
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Phenotypic diversity of weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) biotypes found in California and implications for management
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *