Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-rbzxz Total loading time: 0.391 Render date: 2022-05-17T02:20:18.823Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Article contents

Interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Density in Grafted and Nongrafted Watermelon

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 December 2018

Matthew B. Bertucci*
Affiliation:
Former: Graduate Student, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; current: Research Scientist, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas
Katherine M. Jennings
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
David W. Monks
Affiliation:
Associate Director, North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, NC, USA
Jonathan R. Schultheis
Affiliation:
Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Frank J. Louws
Affiliation:
Professor and Director, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology and National Science Foundation–Center for Integrated Pest Management, Raleigh, NC, USA
David L. Jordan
Affiliation:
Professor, North Carolina State University, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Raleigh, NC, USA
*
Author for correspondence: Matthew B. Bertucci, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704. (Email: bertucci@uark.edu)

Abstract

Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] grafting is commonly used for management of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens; however, little research exists describing the effect of grafting on the weed-competitive ability of watermelon. Field experiments determined the response in yield, fruit number, and fruit quality of grafted and nongrafted watermelon exposed to increasing densities of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson). Grafting treatments included ‘Exclamation’ triploid (seedless) watermelon grafted on two interspecific hybrid squash rootstocks ‘Carnivor’ and ‘Kazako’, with nongrafted Exclamation as the control. Weed treatments included A. palmeri at densities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 A. palmeri plants per watermelon planting hole (0.76-m row) and a weed-free control. Increasing A. palmeri densities caused significant reductions (P <0.05) in marketable watermelon yield and marketable fruit number. Watermelon yield reduction was described by a rectangular hyperbola model, and 4 A. palmeri plants planting hole−1 reduced marketable yield 41%, 38%, and 65% for Exclamation, Carnivor, and Kazako, respectively. Neither grafting treatment nor A. palmeri density had a biologically meaningful effect on soluble solids content or on the incidence of hollow heart in watermelon fruit. Amaranthus palmeri seed and biomass production was similar across weed population densities, but seed number per female A. palmeri decreased according to a two-parameter exponential decay equation. Thus, increasing weed population densities resulted in increased intraspecific competition among A. palmeri plants. While grafting may offer benefits for disease resistance, no benefits regarding weed-competitive ability were observed, and a consistent yield penalty was associated with grafting, even in weed-free treatments.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© Weed Science Society of America, 2018. 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adkins, JI, Stall, WM, Santos, BM, Olson, SM, Ferrell, JA (2010) Critical period of interference between American black nightshade and triploid watermelon. Weed Technol 24:397400 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahn, SJ, Im, YJ, Chung, GC, Cho, BH, Suh, SR (1999) Physiological responses of grafted-cucumber leaves and rootstock roots affected by low root temperature. Sci Hortic (Amst) 81:397408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bensch, CN, Horak, MJ, Peterson, D (2003) Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Sci 51:3743 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertucci, MB (2018) Interference of troublesome weeds in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and the effect of grafting on watermelon yield, fruit quality, weed competitive ability, and root system morphology. Ph.D dissertation. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. 140 pGoogle Scholar
Buker, RS, Stall, WM, Olson, SM, Schilling, DG (2003) Season-long interference of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) with direct-seeded and transplanted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Weed Technol 17:751754 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burke, IC, Schroeder, M, Thomas, WE, Wilcut, JW (2007) Palmer amaranth interference and seed production in peanut. Weed Technol 21:367371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaudhari, S, Jennings, K, Monks, D, Jordan, D, Gunter, C, McGowen, S, Louws, F (2016) Critical period for weed control in grafted and nongrafted fresh market tomato. Weed Sci 64:523530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colla, G, Roupahel, Y, Cardarelli, M, Rea, E (2006) Effect of salinity on yield, fruit quality, leaf gas exchange, and mineral composition of grafted watermelon plants. HortScience 41:622627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cousens, R (1985) A simple model relating yield loss to weed density. Ann Appl Biol 107:239252 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daley, S, Hassell, R (2014) Fatty alcohol application to control meristematic regrowth in bottle gourd and interspecific hybrid squash rootstocks used for grafting watermelon. HortScience 49:260264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dieleman, A, Hamill, AS, Weise, SF, Swanton, CJ (1995) Empirical models of pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 43:612618 Google Scholar
Dittmar, PJ, Monks, DW, Schultheis, JR (2010) Use of commercially available pollenizers for optimizing triploid watermelon production. HortScience 45:541545 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehleringer, J (1983) Ecophysiology of Amaranthus palmeri, a Sonoran desert summer annual. Oecologia 57:107112 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017) FAOSTAT Database Collections. Rome: FAO. http://faostat.fao.org. Accessed: March 9, 2018Google Scholar
Garvey, PV Jr, Meyers, SL, Monks, DW, Coble, HD (2013) Influence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) on the critical period for weed control in plasticulture-grown tomato. Weed Technol 27:165170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghosheh, H, Al-Kawamleh, M, Makhadmeh, I (2010) Weed competitiveness and herbicidal sensitivity of grafted tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.). J Plant Prot Res 50:308313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harker, FR, Marsh, KB, Young, H, Murray, SH, Gunson, FA, Walker, SB (2002) Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 2: sweet and acid taste of apple fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 24:241250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassell, RL, Memmott, F, Liere, DG (2008) Grafting methods for watermelon production. HortScience 43:16771679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassell, RL, Schultheis, JR (2004) Seedless Watermelon Transplant Production Guidelines. Clemson, SC: College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences. https://www.clemson.edu/cafls/research/coastal/documents/seedlesstransplantquide.pdf. Accessed: October 14, 2018Google Scholar
Heap, I (2014) Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds. Pest Manag Sci 70:13061315 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horak, MJ, Loughin, TM (2000) Growth analysis of four Amaranthus species. Weed Sci 48:347355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keeley, PE, Carter, CH, Thullen, RJ (1987) Influence of planting date on growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Sci 35:199204 Google Scholar
Kemble, JM (2017) Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. Lincolnshire, IL: Vance. P 294 Google Scholar
Kleinhenz, MD (2015) Description of Commercial Cucurbit Rootstocks as of February 5, 2015. Common Cucurbit Diseases and Pests and Susceptibility Characteristics. VegetableGrafting.org. http://www.vegetablegrafting.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/usda-scri-cucurbit-rootstock-table-feb-15.pdf. Accessed: March 9, 2018Google Scholar
Kokalis-Burelle, N, Butler, DM, Hong, JC, Bausher, MG, McCollum, G, Rosskopf, EN (2016) Grafting and Paladin pic-21 for nematode and weed management in vegetable production. J Nematol 48:231240 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kubota, C, McClure, MA, Kokalis-Burelle, N, Bausher, MG, Rosskopf, EN (2008) Vegetable grafting: history, use, and current technology status in North America. HortScience 43:16641669 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lament, WJ Jr (1993) Plastic mulches for the production of vegetable crops. HortTechnology 3:35 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, J, Oda, M (2003) Grafting of herbaceous vegetable and ornamental crops. Pages 61124 in Janick J, ed. Horticultural Reviews. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Google Scholar
Louws, FJ, Rivard, CL, Kubota, C (2010) Grafting fruiting vegetables to manage soilborne pathogens, foliar pathogens, arthropods and weeds. Sci Hortic (Amst) 127:127146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massinga, RA, Currie, RS, Horak, MJ, Boyer, J (2001) Interference of Palmer amaranth in corn. Weed Sci 49:202208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyers, SL, Jennings, KM, Schultheis, JR, Monks, DW (2010) Interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in sweetpotato. Weed Sci 58:199203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miguel, A, Maroto, J, Bautista, A, Baixauli, C, Cebolla, V, Pascual, B, Lopez, S, Guardiola, J (2004) The grafting of triploid watermelon is an advantageous alternative to soil fumigation by methyl bromide for control of Fusarium wilt. Sci Hortic (Amst) 103:917 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monks, DW, Schultheis, JR (1998) Critical weed-free period for large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) in transplanted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). 46:530532 Google Scholar
Morgan, GD, Baumann, PA, Chandler, JM (2001) Competitive impact of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) development and yield. Weed Technol 15:408412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nerson, H (1989) Weed competition in muskmelon and its effects on yield and fruit quality. Crop Prot 8:439442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, G, Griffin, T, Bagavathiannan, M, Gbur, EE (2014) In-field movement of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and its impact on cotton lint yield: evidence supporting a zero-threshold strategy. Weed Sci 62:237249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norsworthy, JK, Oliveira, MJ, Jha, P, Malik, M, Buckelew, JK, Jennings, KM, Monks, DW (2008) Palmer amaranth and large crabgrass growth with plasticulture-grown bell pepper. Weed Technol 22:296302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, SM, Hochmuth, GJ, Hochmuth, RC (1994) Effect of transplanting on earliness and total yield of watermelon. HortTechnology 4:141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritz, C, Kniss, AR, Streibig, JC (2015) Research methods in weed science: statistics. Weed Sci 63:166187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rouphael, Y, Cardarelli, M, Colla, G, Rea, E (2008) Yield, mineral composition, water relations, and water use efficiency of grafted mini-watermelon plants under deficit irrigation. HortScience 43:730736 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, D, Granberry, D, Cook, WP (2016) Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Rep. AG-489. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/plasticulture-for-commercial-vegetables. Accessed: March 9, 2018Google Scholar
Sauer, J (1957) Recent migration and evolution of the dioecious amaranths. Evolution 11:1131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schultheis, JR, Thompson, WB (2014) 2014 North Carolina State University Watermelon Cultivar Trials. Raleigh: Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University Hort. Series No. 210. 39 pGoogle Scholar
Sellers, BA, Smeda, RJ, Johnson, WG, Kendig, JA, Ellersieck, MR (2003) Comparative growth of six Amaranthus species in Missouri. Weed Sci 51:329333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sosnoskie, LM, Culpepper, AS (2014) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) increases herbicide use, tillage, and hand-weeding in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 62:393402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sosnoskie, LM, Webster, TM, Grey, TL, Culpepper, AS (2014) Severed stems of Amaranthus palmeri are capable of regrowth and seed production in Gossypium hirsutum . Ann Appl Biol 165:147154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tateishi, K (1927) Grafting watermelon onto pumpkin. Journal of Japanese Horticulture (Nihon-Engei Zasshi) 39:58 Google Scholar
Taylor, M, Bruton, B, Fish, W, Roberts, W (2008) Cost benefit analyses of using grafted watermelon transplants for Fusarium wilt disease control. Pages 343350 in Leskovar DI, ed. Proceedings of the IVth International Symposium on Seed, Transplant and Stand Establishment. Acta Horticulturae 782. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science.Google Scholar
Turhan, A, Ozmen, N, Kuscu, H, Serbeci, MS, Seniz, V (2012) Influence of rootstocks on yield and fruit characteristics and quality of watermelon. Hortic Environ Biote 53:336341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, TM (2010) Weed survey—southern states 2010. Vegetable, fruit and nut crops subsection. Pages 246257 in Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society. Little Rock, AR: Southern Weed Science Society Google Scholar
Webster, TM, Nichols, RL (2012) Changes in the prevalence of weed species in the major agronomic crops of the southern United States: 1994/1995 to 2008/2009. Weed Sci 60:145157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yetisir, H, Sari, N, Yucel, S (2003) Rootstock resistance to fusarium wilt and effect on watermelon fruit yield and quality. Phytoparasitica 31:163169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yetisir, H, Uygur, V (2010) Responses of grafted watermelon onto different gourd species to salinity stress. J Plant Nutr 33:315327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zagheni, E (2003) Grafting replaces methyl bromide. Appropriate Tech 30:1011 Google Scholar
Zhou, Y, Huang, L, Zhang, Y, Shi, K, Yu, J, Nogues, S (2007) Chill-induced decrease in capacity of RuBP carboxylation and associated H2O2 accumulation in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd. Ann Bot 100:839848 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Density in Grafted and Nongrafted Watermelon
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Density in Grafted and Nongrafted Watermelon
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Density in Grafted and Nongrafted Watermelon
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *