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Dissipation of Alachlor in Four Soils as Influenced by Degradation and Sorption Processes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 June 2017

Pau Y. Yen
Affiliation:
Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
William C. Koskinen
Affiliation:
Soil and Water Manage. Res. Unit, USDA-Agric. Res. Serv., St. Paul, MN 55108
Edward E. Schweizer
Affiliation:
Water Manage. Res. Unit, USDA-Agric. Res. Serv., Fort Collins, CO 80523

Abstract

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of degradation and sorption processes on the dissipation of alachlor in one Colorado soil (Kim clay loam) and three Minnesota soils (Port Byron silt loam, Webster silty clay loam, and Estherville sandy loam) as a function of soil depth. Persistence and movement of alachlor in an irrigated corn production system also were determined on the Kim soil. Laboratory degradation data fit first-order kinetics, and rate constants ranged from 0.0094 to 0.0251 d-1 and varied with soil type and depth. For instance, in 60- to 75-cm-depth Kim soil, alachlor degraded at a slower rate (k = 0.011 d-1) than in surface soil samples (k = 0.022 d-1). Alachlor sorption to the four soils was moderate (Kf = 0.7 to 7.4; Kf,oc = 71 to 470) and concentration dependent (1/n < 1.0). Significant hysteretic desorption of alachlor from soils also was observed (1/n desorption < 1/n sorption). The combined effect of degradation and sorption processes has been used to classify a chemical's potential to leach to groundwater. Based on Kf,oc and dissipation half-life, alachlor would be classified as a “leacher” in Kim, Port Byron, and Estherville soils and classified as transitional between “leacher” and “nonleacher” in the Webster soil. The dissipation first-order rate constant (k) of alachlor in Kim soil in the field was 0.036 α 0.012 d-1. Dissipation was apparently not due to leaching since bromide applied at the same time remained in the top 15 cm during the first 28 d. It appears that laboratory-derived leaching indices may overestimate actual leaching and should be used with caution for predictive or regulatory purposes.

Type
Soil, Air, and Water
Copyright
Copyright © 1994 by the Weed Science Society of America 

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