Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-z4vvc Total loading time: 0.533 Render date: 2021-02-25T12:04:07.559Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 June 2009

Dennis M. Dacey
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle

Abstract

In in-vitro preparations of both macaque and human retina, intracellular injections of Neurobiotin and horseradish peroxidase were used to characterize the morphology, depth of stratification, and mosaic organization of a type of bistratified ganglion cell. This cell type, here called the small bistratified cell, has been shown to project to the parvocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (Rodieck, 1991) and is therefore likely to show color-opponent response properties.

In both human and macaque, the two dendritic tiers of the bistratified cell are narrowly stratified close to the inner and outer borders of the inner plexiform layer. The inner tier is larger in diameter and more densely branched than the outer tier and gives rise to distinct spine-like branchlets bearing large, often lobulated heads. By contrast the smaller, outer tier is sparsely branched and relatively spine-free.

In human retina, the small bistratified cells range in dendritic field diameter from ∼50 µm in central retina to ∼400 µm in the far periphery. The human small bistratified cells are about 20% larger in dendritic-field diameter than their counterparts in the macaque. However, when the difference in retinal magnification between human and macaque is taken into account, the small bistratified cells are similar in size in both species. In macaque, the small bistratified cell has a dendritic-field size that is ~10% larger than that of the magnocellular-projecting parasol ganglion cell. Human small bistratified ganglion cells tend to have smaller dendritic-field diameters than parasol cells. This is because parasol ganglion cells are larger in human than in macaque retina (Dacey & Petersen, 1992).

In macaque retina, intracellular injections of Neurobiotin revealed heterotypic tracer coupling to a distinct mosaic of amacrine cells and probable homotypic coupling to an array of neighboring ganglion cells around the perimeter of the injected cell's dendritic tree. The amacrine cell mosaic had a density of 1700 cells/mm2 in peripheral retina. Individual amacrines had small, densely branched and bistratified dendritic fields. From the homotypic coupling, it was possible to estimate for the small bistratified cell a coverage factor of ~1.8, and a density of ~1% of the total ganglion cells in central retina, increasing to ~6–10% in the retinal periphery.

The estimated density, dendritic-field size, and depth of stratification all suggest that the small bistratified ganglion cell type is the morphological counterpart of the common short-wavelength sensitive or ‘blue-ON’ physiological type.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1993

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Amthor, F.R., Oyster, C.W. & Takahashi, E.S. (1984). Morphology of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Brain Research 298, 187190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boycott, B.B. & Dowling, J.E. (1969). Organization of the primate retina: Light microscopy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (London) 255, 109184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boycott, B.B. & Wässle, H. (1991). Morphological classification of bipolar cells of the primate retina. European Journal of Neuroscience 3, 10691088.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Creutzfeldt, O.D., Lee, B.B. & Elepfandt, A. (1979). A quantitative study of chromatic organization and receptive fields of cells in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey. Experimental Brain Research 35, 527545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curcio, C.A. & Allen, K.A. (1990). Topography of ganglion cells in human retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 300, 525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dacey, D.M. (1989). Axon-bearing amacrine cells of the macaque monkey retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 284, 275293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dacey, D.M. (1993). The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina. Journal of Neuroscience (in press).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dacey, D.M. & Brace, S. (1992). A coupled network for parasol but not midget ganglion cells of the primate retina. Visual Neuroscience 9, 279290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dacey, D.M. & Petersen, M.R. (1992). Dendritic-field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89, 96669670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dacey, D.M., Petersen, M. & Allen, K. (1991). Beyond the midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 32, 1130.Google Scholar
de Monasterio, F.M. & Gouras, P. (1975). Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina. Journal of Physiology (London) 251, 167195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Monasterio, F.M. (1978). Properties of ganglion cells with atypical receptive-field organization in retina of macaques. Journal of Neurophysiology 41, 14351449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Monasterio, F.M. (1979). Asymmetry of ON and OFF pathways of blue-sensitive cones of the retina of macaques. Brain Research 166, 3948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derrington, A.M., Krauskopf, J. & Lennie, P. (1984). Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque. Journal of Physiology 357, 241265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Valois, R.L., Abramov, I. & Jacobs, G.H. (1967). Single-cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque. Journal of Neurophysiology 30, 415433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drasdo, N. & Fowler, C.W. (1974). Nonlinear projection of the retinal image in a wide-angle schematic eye. British Journal of Ophthalmology 58, 709714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drasdo, N., Thompson, C.M. & Deeley, R.J. (1991). Psychophysical evidence of two gradients of neural sampling in peripheral vision. In From Pigments to Perception, ed. Valberg, A. & Lee, B.B., pp. 189192. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dreher, B., Fukuda, Y. & Rodieck, R.W. (1976). Identification, classification, and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of Old World primates. Journal of Physiology 258, 433453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grünert, U. & Martin, P.R. (1991). Rod bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina: Immunoreactivity and connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience 11, 27422758.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heimer, G.V. & Taylor, C.E.D. (1974). Improved mountant for immunofluorescent preparations. Journal of Clinical Pathology 27, 254256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kouyama, N. & Marshak, D.W. (1992). Bipolar cells specific for blue cones in the macaque retina. Journal of Neuroscience 12, 12331252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lennie, P. & D'zmura, M. (1988). Mechanisms of color vision. CRC Critical Review of Neurobiology 3, 333400.Google ScholarPubMed
Livingstone, M.S. & Hubel, D. (1988). Do the relative mapping densities of magno- and parvocellular systems vary with eccentricity? Journal of Neuroscience 8, 43344339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mariani, A.P. (1990). Amacrine cells of the rhesus monkey retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 301, 382400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marshak, D.W., Aldrich, L.B., del Valle, J. & Yamada, T. (1990). Localization of immunoreactive cholecystokinin precursor to amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Journal of Neuroscience 10, 30453055.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perry, V.H. & Cowey, A. (1985). The ganglion cell and cone distributions in the monkey's retina: Implications for central magnification factors. Vision Research 25, 17951810.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perry, V.H., Oehler, R. & Cowey, A. (1984). Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey. Neuroscience 12, 11011123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, M., Dacey, D.M. & Allen, K. (1991). Midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 32, 1130.Google Scholar
Polyak, S.L. (1941). The Retina. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Rodieck, R.W. (1973). The Vertebrate Retina. San Francisco, California: W.H. Freeman and Co.Google Scholar
Rodieck, R.W. (1991). Which cells code for color? In From Pigments to Perception, ed. Valberg, A. & Lee, B.B., pp. 8394. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodieck, R.W., Binmoeller, K.F. & Dineen, J. (1985). Parasol and midget ganglion cells of the human retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 233, 115132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodieck, R.W., Dacey, D.M. & Watanabe, M. (1987). Some other ganglion cell types of the primate retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 28, 261.Google Scholar
Rodieck, R.W. & Watanabe, M. (1988). Morphology of ganglion cells that project to the parvocellular laminae of the lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectum, and superior colliculus. Society of Neuroscience Abstract 14, 1120.Google Scholar
Schein, S.J. & de Monasterio, F.M. (1987). Mapping of retinal and geniculate neurons onto striate cortex of macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 7, 9961009.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strettoi, E., Raviola, E. & Dacheux, R.F. (1992). Synaptic connections of the narrow-field bistratified rod amacrine cell (All) in the rabbit retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 325, 152168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaney, D.I. (1985). The morphology and topographic distribution of All amacrine cells in the cat retina. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (London) 224, 475488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaney, D.I. (1991). Many diverse types of retinal neurons show tracer coupling when injected with biocytin or Neurobiotin. Neuroscience Letters 125, 187190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wässle, H., Grünert, U., Röhrenbeck, J. & Boycott, B.B. (1990). Retinal ganglion cell density and cortical magnification factor in the primate. Vision Research 30, 18971911.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wässle, H. & Riemann, H.J. (1978). The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (London) 200, 441461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watanabe, M. & Rodieck, R.W. (1989). Parasol and midget ganglion cells of the primate retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 289, 434454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiesel, T.N. & Hubel, D.H. (1966). Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 29, 11151156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zrenner, E., Abramov, I., Akita, M., Cowey, A., Livingstone, M. & Valberg, A. (1990). Color Perception. In Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, ed. Spillmann, L. & Werner, J.S., pp. 163204. San Diego, California: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zrenner, E. & Gouras, P. (1981). Characteristics of the blue-sensitive cone mechanism in primate retinal ganglion cells. Vision Research 21, 16051609.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 114 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *