More than 100 pairs of adult twins, reared apart and growing old separately, have participated in the Japanese Study of Adult Twins Reared Apart and Growing Old Separately since it began in 1974. The subjects are 161 pairs of adult twins born between 1910 and 1945 in Japan. The main focus of this study is to investigate the influences of environmental factors and life history on life satisfaction and psychological well-being in later adulthood. A mail survey has been conducted on these twins each year since 1974. To date, the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale, Maudsley Personality Inventory, Newgarten Life Satisfaction Index, comprehensive medical examinations and personal interviews have been conducted for 12 twin pairs residing in various areas of Japan.