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The Genesis 12–19 (G1219) Study: A Twin and Sibling Study of Gene–Environment Interplay and Adolescent Development in the UK

  • Tom A. McAdams (a1), Alice M. Gregory (a2), Richard Rowe (a3), Helena M. S. Zavos (a1), Nicola L. Barclay (a4), Jennifer Y. F. Lau (a5), Barbara Maughan (a1) and Thalia C. Eley (a1)...


The Genesis 12–19 (G1219) Study is an ongoing longitudinal study of a sample of UK twin pairs, non-twin sibling pairs, and their parents. G1219 was initially designed to examine the role of gene–environment interplay in adolescent depression. However, since then data have continued to be collected from both parents and their offspring into young adulthood. This has allowed for longitudinal analyses of depression and has enabled researchers to investigate multiple phenotypes and to ask questions about intermediate mechanisms. The study has primarily focused on emotional development, particularly depression and anxiety, which have been assessed at multiple levels of analysis (symptoms, cognitions, and relevant environmental experiences). G1219 has also included assessment of a broader range of psychological phenotypes ranging from antisocial behaviors and substance use to sleep difficulties, in addition to multiple aspects of the environment. DNA has also been collected. The first wave of data collection began in the year 1999 and the fifth wave of data collection will be complete before the end of 2012. In this article, we describe the sample, data collection, and measures used. We also summarize some of the key findings to date.


Corresponding author

address for correspondence: Tom A. McAdams, MRC Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, Greater London, SE5 8AF, UK. E-mail:


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