Skip to main content Accessibility help

DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

  • Pei-Chien Tsai (a1), Jenny Van Dongen (a2), Qihua Tan (a3) (a4), Gonneke Willemsen (a2), Lene Christiansen (a3), Dorret I. Boomsma (a2), Tim D. Spector (a1), Ana M. Valdes (a1) (a5) and Jordana T. Bell (a1)...


Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg12562232, p = 2.62 × 10−8), was significantly associated with birth weight discordance at a genome-wide false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05. We pursued replication in three additional independent datasets of birth weight discordant MZ pairs and observed the same direction of association, but the results were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent of genetic effects.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins
      Available formats


Corresponding author

address for correspondence: Jordana T. Bell, Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, St Thomas’ Hospital Campus, 3rd Floor South Wing Block D, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH. E-mail:


Hide All
Abuzzahab, M. J., Schneider, A., Goddard, A., Grigorescu, F., Lautier, C., & Keller, E. (2003). Intrauterine growth retardation study group. IGF-I receptor mutations resulting in intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 22112222.
Adkins, R. M., Somes, G., Morrison, J. C., Hill, J. B., Watson, E. M., Magann, E. F., & Krushkal, J. (2010). Association of birth weight with polymorphisms in the IGF2, H19, and IGF2R genes. Pediatric Research, 68, 429434.
Adkins, R. M., Tylavsky, F. A., & Krushkal, J. (2012). Newborn umbilical cord blood DNA methylation and gene expression levels exhibit limited association with birth weight. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 9, 888899.
Amarasekera, M., Noakes, P., Strickland, D., Saffery, R., Martino, D. J., & Prescott, S. L. (2014). Epigenome-wide analysis of neonatal CD4(+) T-cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by maternal fish oil supplementation. Epigenetics, 9, 15701576.
Aryee, M. J., Jaffe, A. E., Corrada-Bravo, H., Ladd-Acosta, C., Feinberg, A. P., Hansen, K. D., & Irizarry, R. A. (2014). Minfi: A flexible and comprehensive bioconductor package for the analysis of infinium DNA methylation microarrays. Bioinformatics, 30, 13631369.
Baird, J., Osmond, C., MacGregor, A., Snieder, H., Hales, C. N., & Phillips, D. I. (2001). Testing the fetal origins hypothesis in twins: The birmingham twin study. Diabetologia, 44, 3339.
Banister, C. E., Koestler, D. C., Maccani, M. A., Padbury, J. F., Houseman, E. A., & Marsit, C. J. (2011). Infant growth restriction is associated with distinct patterns of DNA methylation in human placentas. Epigenetics, 6, 920927.
Barker, D. J. (2004). The developmental origins of adult disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23, 588S595S.
Barker, D. J., Hales, C. N., Fall, C. H., Osmond, C., Phipps, K., & Clark, P. M. (1993a). Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): Relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia, 36, 6267.
Barker, D. J., & Osmond, C. (1986). Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Lancet, 1 (8489), 10771081.
Barker, D. J., Osmond, C., Simmonds, S. J., & Wield, G. A. (1993b). The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. BMJ, 306, 422426.
Barker, D. J., Winter, P. D., Osmond, C., Margetts, B., & Simmonds, S. J. (1989). Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet, 2 (8663), 577580.
Battaglia, F. C., & Lubchenco, L. O. (1967). A practical classification of newborn infants by weight and gestational age. Journal of Pediatrics, 71, 159163.
Bell, J. T., Tsai, P. C., Yang, T. P., Pidsley, R., Nisbet, J., Glass, D., & Deloukas, P. (2012). Epigenome-wide scans identify differentially methylated regions for age and age-related phenotypes in a healthy ageing population. PLoS Genetics, 8, e1002629.
Boomsma, D. I., de Geus, E. J., Vink, J. M., Stubbe, J. H., Distel, M. A., Hottenga, J. J., & Willemsen, G. (2006). Netherlands twin register: From twins to twin families. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 849857.
Boomsma, D. I., Vink, J. M., van Beijsterveldt, T. C., de Geus, E. J., Beem, A. L., Mulder, E. J., & van Baal, G. C. (2002). Netherlands twin register: A focus on longitudinal research. Twin Research, 5, 401406.
Brennan, A., Meng, Y., Holmes, J., Hill-McManus, D., & Meier, P. S. (2014). Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: Modelling study. BMJ, 349, g5452.
Brooks, A. M., Byrd, R. S., Weitzman, M., Auinger, P., & McBride, J. T. (2001). Impact of low birth weight on early childhood asthma in the United States. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 401406.
Canpolat, F. E., Cekmez, F., Sarici, S. U., Korkmaz, A., & Yurdakok, M. (2011). Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in twins and its correlation with discordance. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 14, 9497.
Clausson, B., Lichtenstein, P., & Cnattingius, S. (2000). Genetic influence on birthweight and gestational length determined by studies in offspring of twins. BJOG, 107, 375381.
Cleary-Goldman, J., & D'Alton, M. E. (2008). Growth abnormalities and multiple gestations. Seminars in Perinatology, 32, 206212.
Demetriou, C., Abu-Amero, S., Thomas, A. C., Ishida, M., Aggarwal, R., Al-Olabi, L., & Moore, G. E. (2014). Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight. PLoS One, 9, e85454.
Derom, C. A., Vlietinck, R. F., Thiery, E. W., Leroy, F. O., Fryns, J. P., & Derom, R. M. (2006). The east flanders prospective twin survey (EFPTS). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 733738.
Desgagne, V., Hivert, M. F., St-Pierre, J., Guay, S. P., Baillargeon, J. P., Perron, P., & Bouchard, L. (2014). Epigenetic dysregulation of the IGF system in placenta of newborns exposed to maternal impaired glucose tolerance. Epigenomics, 6, 193207.
Dominguez-Salas, P., Moore, S. E., Baker, M. S., Bergen, A. W., Cox, S. E., Dyer, R. A., & Hennig, B. J. (2014). Maternal nutrition at conception modulates DNA methylation of human metastable epialleles. Nature Communications, 5, 3746.
Engel, S. M., Joubert, B. R., Wu, M. C., Olshan, A. F., Haberg, S. E., Ueland, P. M., & London, S. J. (2014). Neonatal genome-wide methylation patterns in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian mother and child cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179, 834842.
Fagerberg, B., Bondjers, L., & Nilsson, P. (2004). Low birth weight in combination with catch-up growth predicts the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in men at late middle age: The Atherosclerosis and insulin resistance study. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256, 254259.
Fernandez-Twinn, D. S., & Ozanne, S. E. (2010). Early life nutrition and metabolic programming. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1212, 7896.
Filiberto, A. C., Maccani, M. A., Koestler, D., Wilhelm-Benartzi, C., Avissar-Whiting, M., Banister, C. E., Gagne, L. A., . . . Marsit, C. J. (2011). Birthweight is associated with DNA promoter methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human placenta. Epigenetics, 6, 566572.
Fortin, J. P., Labbe, A., Lemire, M., Zanke, B. W., Hudson, T. J., Fertig, E. J., Greenwood, C. M., . . . Hansen, K. D. (2014). Functional normalization of 450k methylation array data improves replication in large cancer studies. Genome Biology, 15, 503.
Fraga, M. F., Ballestar, E., Paz, M. F., Ropero, S., Setien, F., Ballestar, M. L., & Esteller, M. (2005). Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 1060410609.
Freathy, R. M., Mook-Kanamori, D. O., Sovio, U., Prokopenko, I., Timpson, N. J., Berry, D. J., & McCarthy, M. I. (2010). Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight. Nature Genetics, 42, 430435.
Frost, M., Petersen, I., Brixen, K., Beck-Nielsen, H., Holst, J. J., Christiansen, L., Hojlund, K., . . . Christensen, K. (2012). Adult glucose metabolism in extremely birthweight-discordant monozygotic twins. Diabetologia, 55, 32043212.
Fryer, A. A., Emes, R. D., Ismail, K. M., Haworth, K. E., Mein, C., Carroll, W. D., & Farrell, W. E. (2011). Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics, 6, 8694.
Gielen, M., Lindsey, P. J., Derom, C., Smeets, H. J., Souren, N. Y., Paulussen, A. D., Derom, R., . . . Nijhuis, J. G. (2008). Modeling genetic and environmental factors to increase heritability and ease the identification of candidate genes for birth weight: A twin study. Behavior Genetics, 38, 4454.
Gordon, L., Joo, J. E., Powell, J. E., Ollikainen, M., Novakovic, B., Li, X., & Saffery, R. (2012). Neonatal DNA methylation profile in human twins is specified by a complex interplay between intrauterine environmental and genetic factors, subject to tissue-specific influence. Genome Research, 22, 13951406.
Gordon, L., Joo, J. H., Andronikos, R., Ollikainen, M., Wallace, E. M., Umstad, M. P., & Craig, J. M. (2011). Expression discordance of monozygotic twins at birth: effect of intrauterine environment and a possible mechanism for fetal programming. Epigenetics, 6, 579592.
Heijmans, B. T., Tobi, E. W., Stein, A. D., Putter, H., Blauw, G. J., Susser, E. S., Slagboom, P. E., . . . Lumey, L. H. (2008). Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 1704617049.
Higgins, J. P., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21, 15391558.
Horikoshi, M., Yaghootkar, H., Mook-Kanamori, D. O., Sovio, U., Taal, H. R., Hennig, B. J., & Freathy, R. M. (2013). New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism. Nature Genetics, 45, 7682.
Horvath, S. (2013). DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types. Genome Biology, 14, R115.
Houseman, E. A., Accomando, W. P., Koestler, D. C., Christensen, B. C., Marsit, C. J., & Kelsey, K. T. (2012). DNA methylation arrays as surrogate measures of cell mixture distribution. BMC Bioinformatics, 13, 86.
Hoyo, C., Fortner, K., Murtha, A. P., Schildkraut, J. M., Soubry, A., Demark-Wahnefried, W., & Murphy, S. K. (2012). Association of cord blood methylation fractions at imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), plasma IGF2, and birth weight. Cancer Causes Control, 23, 635645.
Jarvelin, M. R., Sovio, U., King, V., Lauren, L., Xu, B., McCarthy, M. I., & Elliott, P. (2004). Early life factors and blood pressure at age 31 years in the 1966 northern Finland birth cohort. Hypertension, 44, 838846.
Johansson, S., Iliadou, A., Bergvall, N., de Faire, U., Kramer, M. S., Pawitan, Y., & Cnattingius, S. (2008). The association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes: Contribution of genetic factors. Epidemiology, 19, 659665.
Kaminsky, Z. A., Tang, T., Wang, S. C., Ptak, C., Oh, G. H., Wong, A. H., & Petronis, A. (2009). DNA methylation profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Nature Genetics, 41, 240245.
Koutsaki, M., Sifakis, S., Zaravinos, A., Koutroulakis, D., Koukoura, O., & Spandidos, D. A. (2011). Decreased placental expression of hPGH, IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 21, 3136.
Kramer, M. S. (1987a). Determinants of low birth weight: Methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 65, 663737.
Kramer, M. S. (1987b). Intrauterine growth and gestational duration determinants. Pediatrics, 80, 502511.
Laliberté, E. (2011). Metacor: Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients. R package version 1.0–2. Retrieved from
Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, M.-L., González-Domínguez, M. I., Daza-Benítez, L., & Barbosa-Sabanero, G. (2015). Placental IGF1R–PI3 K/ΑK/Akt pathway and its relationship to 1 idiopathic birth weight alterations. Paper presented at the Society for Endocrinology ECE 2015, Endocrine, Dublin, Ireland.
Leeson, C. P., Kattenhorn, M., Morley, R., Lucas, A., & Deanfield, J. E. (2001). Impact of low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors on endothelial function in early adult life. Circulation, 103, 12641268.
Levesque, M. L., Casey, K. F., Szyf, M., Ismaylova, E., Ly, V., Verner, M. P., & Booij, L. (2014). Genome-wide DNA methylation variability in adolescent monozygotic twins followed since birth. Epigenetics, 9, 14101421.
Lewi, L., Jani, J., Blickstein, I., Huber, A., Gucciardo, L., Van Mieghem, T., & Deprest, J. (2008). The outcome of monochorionic diamniotic twin gestations in the era of invasive fetal therapy: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 199, 514, e511–518.
Loke, Y. J., Novakovic, B., Ollikainen, M., Wallace, E. M., Umstad, M. P., Permezel, M., & Craig, J. M. (2013). The peri/postnatal epigenetic twins study (PETS). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 1320.
Lopriore, E., Nagel, H. T., Vandenbussche, F. P., & Walther, F. J. (2003). Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 189, 13141319.
Lunde, A., Melve, K. K., Gjessing, H. K., Skjaerven, R., & Irgens, L. M. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and gestational age by use of population-based parent-offspring data. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165, 734741.
Magnus, P. (1984a). Causes of variation in birth weight: A study of offspring of twins. Clinical Genetics, 25, 1524.
Magnus, P. (1984b). Further evidence for a significant effect of fetal genes on variation in birth weight. Clinical Genetics, 26, 289296.
Magnus, P., Gjessing, H. K., Skrondal, A., & Skjaerven, R. (2001). Paternal contribution to birth weight. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55, 873877.
Maksimovic, J., Gordon, L., & Oshlack, A. (2012). SWAN: Subset-quantile within array normalization for illumina infinium HumanMethylation450 beadchips. Genome Biology, 13, R44.
Martino, D., Loke, Y. J., Gordon, L., Ollikainen, M., Cruickshank, M. N., Saffery, R., & Craig, J. M. (2013). Longitudinal, genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation in twins from birth to 18 months of age reveals rapid epigenetic change in early life and pair-specific effects of discordance. Genome Biology, 14, R42.
Marttila, S., Kananen, L., Hayrynen, S., Jylhava, J., Nevalainen, T., Hervonen, A., & Hurme, M. (2015). Ageing-associated changes in the human DNA methylome: Genomic locations and effects on gene expression. BMC Genomics, 16, 179.
McCormick, M. (1985). The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine, 312, 8290.
McIntire, D. D., Bloom, S. L., Casey, B. M., & Leveno, K. J. (1999). Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 12341238.
McMinn, J., Wei, M., Schupf, N., Cusmai, J., Johnson, E. B., Smith, A. C., Weksberg, R., . . . Tycko, B. (2006). Unbalanced placental expression of imprinted genes in human intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta, 27, 540549.
McNeill, G., Tuya, C., & Smith, W. C. (2004). The role of genetic and environmental factors in the association between birthweight and blood pressure: Evidence from meta-analysis of twin studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 9951001.
Moayyeri, A., Hammond, C. J., Valdes, A. M., & Spector, T. D. (2013). Cohort profile: TwinsUK and healthy ageing twin study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42, 7685.
Mook-Kanamori, D. O., van Beijsterveldt, C. E., Steegers, E. A., Aulchenko, Y. S., Raat, H., Hofman, A., Eilers, P. H., . . . Jaddoe, V. W. (2012). Heritability estimates of body size in fetal life and early childhood. PLoS One, 7, e39901.
Mulligan, C. J., D'Errico, N. C., Stees, J., & Hughes, D. A. (2012). Methylation changes at NR3C1 in newborns associate with maternal prenatal stress exposure and newborn birth weight. Epigenetics, 7, 853857.
Murphy, R., Ibanez, L., Hattersley, A., & Tost, J. (2012). IGF2/H19 hypomethylation in a patient with very low birthweight, precocious pubarche and insulin resistance. BMC Medical Genetics, 13, 42.
Ollikainen, M., Smith, K. R., Joo, E. J., Ng, H. K., Andronikos, R., Novakovic, B., Abdul, A., . . . Craig, J. M. (2010). DNA methylation analysis of multiple tissues from newborn twins reveals both genetic and intrauterine components to variation in the human neonatal epigenome. Human Molecular Genetics, 19, 41764188.
Ong, K., Kratzsch, J., Kiess, W., Costello, M., Scott, C., & Dunger, D. (2000). Size at birth and cord blood levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-3, and the soluble IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor in term human infants. The ALSPAC study team. Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 85, 42664269.
Re, A. C. D., & Hoyt, W. T. (2012). MAc: Meta-analysis with correlations. R package version 1.1.
Schulze, R. (2004). Meta-Analysis: A Comparison of Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.
Simpkin, A. J., Suderman, M., Gaunt, T. R., Lyttleton, O., McArdle, W. L., Ring, S. M., & Relton, C. L. (2015). Longitudinal analysis of DNA methylation associated with birth weight and gestational age. Human Molecular Genetics, 24, 37523763.
Souren, N. Y., Lutsik, P., Gasparoni, G., Tierling, S., Gries, J., Riemenschneider, M., & Walter, J. (2013). Adult monozygotic twins discordant for intra-uterine growth have indistinguishable genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Genome Biology, 14, R44.
Steegenga, W. T., Boekschoten, M. V., Lute, C., Hooiveld, G. J., de Groot, P. J., Morris, T. J., & Muller, M. (2014). Genome-wide age-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in human PBMCs. Age, 3, 9648.
Steegers-Theunissen, R. P., Obermann-Borst, S. A., Kremer, D., Lindemans, J., Siebel, C., Steegers, E. A., Slagboom, P. E., . . . Heijmans, B. T. (2009). Periconceptional maternal folic acid use of 400 microg per day is related to increased methylation of the IGF2 gene in the very young child. PLoS One, 4, e7845.
Steinberg, L. H., Hurley, V. A., Desmedt, E., & Beischer, N. A. (1990). Acute polyhydramnios in twin pregnancies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 30, 196200.
Straughen, J. K., Sipahi, L., Uddin, M., Misra, D. P., & Misra, V. K. (2015). Racial differences in IGF1 methylation and birth weight. Clinical Epigenetics, 7, 47.
Tan, Q., Frost, M., Heijmans, B. T., von Bornemann Hjelmborg, J., Tobi, E. W., Christensen, K., & Christiansen, L. (2014). Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins. BMC Genomics, 15, 1062.
Teschendorff, A. E., Marabita, F., Lechner, M., Bartlett, T., Tegner, J., Gomez-Cabrero, D., & Beck, S. (2013). A beta-mixture quantile normalization method for correcting probe design bias in Illumina Infinium 450k DNA methylation data. Bioinformatics, 29, 189196.
Thompson, C., Syddall, H., Rodin, I., Osmond, C., & Barker, D. J. (2001). Birth weight and the risk of depressive disorder in late life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 450455.
Torche, F., & Echevarria, G. (2011). The effect of birthweight on childhood cognitive development in a middle-income country. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 10081018.
Tsai, P. C., & Bell, J. T. (2015). Power and sample size estimation for epigenome-wide association scans to detect differential DNA methylation. International Journal of Epidemiology. Advance online publication.
Tsaprouni, L. G., Yang, T. P., Bell, J., Dick, K. J., Kanoni, S., Nisbet, J., & Deloukas, P. (2014). Cigarette smoking reduces DNA methylation levels at multiple genomic loci but the effect is partially reversible upon cessation. Epigenetics, 9, 13821396.
van Dongen, J., Ehli, E. A., Slieker, R. C., Bartels, M., Weber, Z. M., Davies, G. E., & Boomsma, D. I. (2014). Epigenetic variation in monozygotic twins: A genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in buccal cells. Genes, 5, 347365.
van Dongen, J., Nivard, M. G., Willemsen, G., Hottenga, J.-J., Helmer, Q., Dolan, C. V., Ehli, E. A., . . . Boomsma, D. I. (under review) Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome.
Walter, E. C., Ehlenbach, W. J., Hotchkin, D. L., Chien, J. W., & Koepsell, T. D. (2009). Low birth weight and respiratory disease in adulthood: A population-based case-control study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180, 176180.
Ward, C., Lewis, S., & Coleman, T. (2007). Prevalence of maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and impact on birth weight: Retrospective study using Millennium Cohort. BMC Public Health, 7, 81.
Westwood, M., Gibson, J. M., Sooranna, S. R., Ward, S., Neilson, J. P., & Bajoria, R. (2001). Genes or placenta as modulator of fetal growth: Evidence from the insulin-like growth factor axis in twins with discordant growth. Molecular Human Reproduction, 7, 387395.
Willemsen, G., de Geus, E. J., Bartels, M., van Beijsterveldt, C. E., Brooks, A. I., Estourgie-van Burk, G. F., & Boomsma, D. I. (2010). The netherlands twin register biobank: A resource for genetic epidemiological studies. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 13, 231245.
Willemsen, G., Vink, J. M., Abdellaoui, A., den Braber, A., van Beek, J. H., Draisma, H. H., & Boomsma, D. I. (2013). The adult netherlands twin register: Twenty-five years of survey and biological data collection. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 271281.
World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: Author.
Wu, Y. W., Xing, G., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Danielson, B., Smith, L. H., & Gilbert, W. M. (2011). Racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of cerebral palsy. Pediatrics, 127, e674–681.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed