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Association Between Dysmenorrhea and Risk of Epilepsy in East Asian Populations: A Bidirectional Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 December 2023

Yuehan Ren
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Junning Zhang
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Oncology of Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
Tong Chen
Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Jiaqin Chen
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Gastroenterology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
Yan Liao
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Tingxiu Liu
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Liangliang Yang
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Chang Liu
Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Xinmin Liu*
Department of Gynecology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Baoqin Liu*
TCM Gynecology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
Corresponding authors: Xinmin Liu; Email: and Baoqin Liu; Email:
Corresponding authors: Xinmin Liu; Email: and Baoqin Liu; Email:
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Dysmenorrhea is associated with epilepsy. Existing evidence is mostly limited to observational studies, which are liable to confounding and bias. This study investigated the causal relevance of dysmenorrhea on epilepsy using Mendelian randomization (MR). We extracted instrumental variants for dysmenorrhea and epilepsy from published genomewide association study data, focusing on individuals of East Asian descent. A comprehensive suite of MR estimations and sensitivity analyses was performed to ensure the robustness of the findings. Each outcome database was analyzed separately in both directions. For dysmenorrhea and epilepsy, 7 and 3 genetic variants respectively were selectively extracted as instrumental variants. The results suggest that dysmenorrhea is causally associated with an elevated risk of epilepsy (inverse variance weighted [IVW]: OR = 1.26; 95% CI [1.07, 1.47]; p = 4.42 × 10−3); conversely, no strong evidence was found to corroborate that epilepsy exerts a causal effect on the incidence of dysmenorrhea (IVW: OR = 1.04; 95% CI [0.82, 1.33]; p = .72). These findings provide novel insights into the causal relationship between dysmenorrhea and epilepsy, which may have implications for clinical decision-making in patients with epilepsy and dysmenorrhea.

© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of International Society for Twin Studies

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These authors share first authorship.


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