These notes discuss the Proposal by the Commission of the European Communities for a Council Directive “On the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in occupational social security schemes”. Article 6, sections l(h) and (i) of the proposed Directive state that it would be contrary to the principle of equal treatment to provide for benefits whose level or amount differ or to set contributions at different rates, “by taking into account different factors of calculation, actuarial or otherwise, with regard to the phenomena of ill health, mortality or life expectancy”. These notes concentrate on this proposal, which is of considerable actuarial importance. Actuaries take into account different factors of calculation with regard to these phenomena, not simply by convention or through unjustifiable prejudice, but because of a sincere respect for the truth. To attempt to ignore the truth may have dangerous consequences, which are discussed.