Skip to main content Accessibility help

Purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes

  • A. Yaya (a1), C. P. Ewels (a1), Ph. Wagner (a1), I. Suarez-Martinez (a2), A. Gebramariam Tekley (a3) and L. Rosgaard Jensen (a4)...


We present a study of purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using different oxidation temperatures and chemical treatments. We have developed a simple two annealing-steps procedure resulting in high nanotube purity with minimal sample loss. The process involves annealing the SWCNTs at 300 °C for 2 h with subsequent reflux in 6 M HCl at 130 °C, followed by further annealing at 350 °C for 1 h with reflux in 6 M HCl at 130 °C. The process results in effective removal of carbon impurities and metal particles which are associated with SWCNTs production. The process is less time consuming (complete in 4.5 h) than conventional acid purification methods which require over 5 h, and less destructive than conventional methods with a yield of 26%. SWCNT purity was assessed using Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.


Corresponding author


Hide All
[1] Iijima, S., Ichihashi, T., Nature 363, 603 (1993)
[2] Niu, C., Sichel, E.K., Hoch, R., Moy, D., Tennent, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1480 (1997)
[3] Diederich, L., Barborini, E., Piseri, P., Podesta, A., Milani, P., Schneuwly, A., Gallay, R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2662 (1999)
[4] Wu, G.T., Wang, C.S., Zhang, X.B., Yang, H.S., Qi, Z.F., He, P.M., Li, W.Z., J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 1696 (1999)
[5] Franckowiak, E., Gautier, S., Gaucher, H., Bonnamy, S., Beguin, F., Carbon 37, 61 (1999)
[6] Cassel, A.M., Raymakers, J.A., Kong, J., Dai, H., J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 6484 (1999)
[7] Journet, C., Maser, W.K., Bernier, P., Loiseau, A., Lamy de, M. la Chapelle, S. Lefrant, P. Daniard, R. Lee, J.E. Fischer, Nature 388, 756 (1997)
[8] Saito, Y., Tani, Y., Miyagawa, N., Mitsushima, K., Kasuya, A., Nishina, Y., Chem. Phys. Lett. 294, 593 (1998)
[9] Shi, Z.J., Lian, Y.F., Zhou, X.H., Gu, Z.N., Zhang, Y., Iijima, S., Zhou, L.X., Yue, K.T., Zhang, S.L., Carbon 37, 1449 (1999)
[10] Guo, T., Nikolaev, P., Thess, A., Colbert, D.T., Smalley, R.E., Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 243 (1995)
[11] Ebbesen, T.W., Ajayan, P.M., Hiura, H., Tanigaki, K., Nature 367, 519 (1994)
[12] Chiang, I.W., Brinson, B.E., Smalley, R.E., Margrave, J.L., Hauge, R.H., J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1157 (2001)
[13] Hou, P.-X., Liu, C., Cheng, H.-M., Carbon 46, 2003 (2008)
[14] Shi, Z.J., Lian, Y.F., Liao, F.H., Zhou, X.H., Gu, Z.N., Zhang, Y., Iijima, S., Solid State Commun. 35, 112 (1999)
[15] Tohji, K., Takahashi, H., Shinoda, Y., Shimizu, N., Jeyadevan, B., Matsuoka, I., Saito, Y., Kasuya, A., Ito, S., Nishina, Y., J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 1974 (1997)
[16] Liu, B., Wagberg, T., Olssen, E., Yang, R., Li, H., Zhang, S., Yang, H., Zou, G., Sundqvist, B., Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 365 (2000)
[17] Bandow, S., Rao, A.M., Williams, K.A., Thess, A., Smalley, R.E., Ecklund, P.C., J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8839 (1997)
[18] Shelimov, K.B., Esenaliev, R.O., Rinzler, A.G., Huffman, C.B., Smalley, R.E., J. Chem. Phys. Lett. 282, 429 (1998)
[19] Yu, A., Bekyarova, E., Itkis, M.E., Fakhrutdinov, D., Webster, R., Haddon, R.C., J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 128, 9902 (2006)
[20] Li, W., Bai, Y., Zhang, Y., Sun, M., Cheng, R., Xu, X., Chen, Y., Mo, Y., Synth. Met. 155, 509 (2005)
[21] Moon, J.-M., An, K.H., Lee, Y.H., Park, Y.S., Bae, D.J., Park, G.-S., J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5677 (2001)
[22] Hou, P.X., Bai, S., Yang, Q.H., Liu, C., Cheng, H.M., Carbon 40, 81 (2002)
[23] Chen, U., Green, M.L.H., Griffin, J.L., Hammer, J., Lago, R.M., Tsang, S.C., Adv. Mater. 8, 1012 (1996)
[24] Zimmerman, J.L., Bradley, R.K., Huffman, C.B., Hauge, R.H., Margrave, J.L., Chem. Mater. 12, 1361 (2000)
[25] P.J.F. Harris, Carbon Nanotube Science (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009)
[26] Georgakilas, V., Voulgaris, D., Vazquez, E., Prato, M., Guldi, D.M., Kukovecz, A., Kuzmany, H., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 14318 (2002)
[28] Zhao, Z., Hu, H., Niyogi, S., Itkis, M.E., Hamon, M.A., Bhowmik, P., Meier, M.S., Haddon, R.C., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11673 (2001)
[29] Duesberg, G.S., Roth, S., Downes, P., Minett, A., Graupner, R., Ley, L., Nicoloso, N., Chem. Mater. 15, 3314 (2003)
[30] Jiang, C., Kempa, K., Zhao, J., Schlecht, U., Kolb, U., Basché, T., Burghard, M., Mews, A., Phys. Rev. B 66, 161404(R) (2002)
[31] Dillon, A.C., Gennett, T., Jones, K.M., Alleman, J.L., Parilla, P.A., Heben, M.J., Adv. Mater. 11, 1354 (1999)
[32] Triguerio, J.P.C., Silva, G.G., Lavall, R.L., Furtado, C.A., Oliveira, S., Ferlauto, A.S., Lacerda, R.G., Ladeira, L.O., Liu, J.-W., Frost, R.L., George, G.A., J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 3477 (2007)
[33] Mathur, R.B., Seth, S., Lal, C., Rao, R., Singh, B.P., Dhami, T.L., Rao, A.M., Carbon 45, 132 (2007)

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes

  • A. Yaya (a1), C. P. Ewels (a1), Ph. Wagner (a1), I. Suarez-Martinez (a2), A. Gebramariam Tekley (a3) and L. Rosgaard Jensen (a4)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.