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  • Kevin McManus (a1) and Emma Marsden (a2)


This study partially replicates McManus and Marsden (2017), who found that providing L1 explicit information (EI) plus task-essential practice led L2 learners to make more accurate and faster interpretations of French morphosyntax. The current study removed the original study’s L1 EI component to examine the role of the L1 practice. This design tested whether providing L1 task-essential practice only (alongside a core treatment of L2 EI plus L2 practice) resulted in similar online and offline learning gains compared to the original study’s L1 EI plus L1 practice. We used the same online and offline tests, with a similar population of English-speaking learners of L2 French (n = 19). For accuracy and speed of online and offline L2 processing, the findings suggest that additional L1 practice without L1 EI was no more beneficial than L2 EI plus L2 practice alone, indicating that the original study’s combination of additional L1 EI with L1 practice appeared to contribute to previously observed learning benefits.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Kevin McManus, Center for Language Acquisition, Department of Applied Linguistics, 209 Sparks Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. E-mail:


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The experiment in this article earned an Open Materials badge for transparent practices. The materials are available at

This research was supported by a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship (PF130001) awarded to Kevin McManus, with Emma Marsden as Mentor. Many thanks to the learners who participated in this study, and to Angela O’Flaherty and Nigel Armstrong for help with recruitment. We would also like to thank the editors and two anonymous SSLA reviewers for their valuable comments, and Oriane Boulay, Margaret Coleman, and Sylvie Goodlow for their research assistance.



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Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

McManus and Marsden supplementary material
Tables S1-S3

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29 KB


  • Kevin McManus (a1) and Emma Marsden (a2)


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