Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-DETERMINATION ACROSS THE LANGUAGE COURSE: TRAJECTORIES OF MOTIVATIONAL CHANGE AND THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS, ORIENTATIONS, AND ENGAGEMENT

  • Kimberly A. Noels (a1), Dayuma I. Vargas Lascano (a2) and Kristie Saumure (a3)

Abstract

Research suggests that students put more effort into language learning when they feel that it is a voluntary and self-relevant activity or they enjoy the process of mastering that language (i.e., they have a more self-determined orientation). This orientation is fostered when learners feel autonomous, competent, and related to others in their learning environment. We followed 162 university students of French across one semester to examine these causal claims longitudinally. Latent growth curve modeling showed that feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness and self-determined motivation increased across the semester while engagement declined. Parallel processes growth curve modeling showed that declines in engagement across the semester were attenuated to the extent that self-determined motivation increased. Auto-regressive cross-lagged analysis showed that, contrary to expectation, more engagement as the semester started predicted greater self-determination mid-semester (instead of vice versa), but these relations became reciprocal from mid-semester on. These findings are consistent with a dynamic model of motivation that emphasizes the reciprocal interplay between motivational constructs over the duration of a language course. The implications of these findings for motivation theory and instructional practices are discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Kimberly Noels, Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E9. E-mail: knoels@ualberta.ca

Footnotes

Hide All

At the time this research was completed, Dayuma I. Vargas Lascano and Kristie Saumure were at the University of Alberta. This research was supported by a research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada to the first author. Versions of this paper were presented at the 2009 Conference of the Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics and at the 2010 Conference of the American Association of Applied Linguistics. The authors would like to thank Tory Pino and Sabine Ricioppo for their research assistance and Dr. Élizabeth Le for her consultation regarding the French program.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Bem, D. J. (1967). Self-perception: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena. Psychological Review, 74, 183.
Bidee, J., Vantilborgh, T., Pepermans, R., Griep, Y., & Hofmans, J. (2016). Temporal dynamics of need satisfaction and need frustration: Two sides of the same coin? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25, 900913.
Bonney, C., Cortina, K., Smith-Darden, J., & Fiori, K. (2008). Understanding strategies in foreign language learning: Are integrative and intrinsic motives distinct predictors? Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 110.
Busse, V., & Walter, C. (2013). Foreign language learning motivation in higher education: A longitudinal study of motivational changes and their causes. Modern Language Journal, 97, 435456.
Carreira, J. M. (2012). Motivational orientations and psychological needs in EFL learning among elementary school students in Japan. System, 40, 191202.
Chaffee, K. E., Noels, K. A., & Sugita McEown, M. (2014). Learning from authoritarian teachers: Controlling the situation or controlling yourself can sustain motivation. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4, 355387.
Clément, R., & Kruidenier, B. G. (1985). Aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language proficiency: A test of Clément’s model. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 4, 2137.
Comanaru, R., & Noels, K. A. (2009). Self-determination, motivation, and the learning of Chinese as a heritage language. Canadian Modern Language Review, 66, 131158.
de Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 721.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former eastern bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930942.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York, NY: Routledge.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2009). Motivation, language identity, and the L2 self. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P., & Henry, A. (2015). Introduction: Applying complex dynamic systems principles to empirical research on L2 motivation. In Dörnyei, Z., Henry, A., & MacIntyre, P. D. (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 17). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept: State of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59119.
Gardner, R. C. (2006). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: A research paradigm. Eurosla Yearbook, 6, 237260.
Gardner, R. C. (2010). Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model (Vol. 10). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Gardner, R. C., Masgoret, A.-M., Tennant, J., & Mihic, L. (2004). Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate-level language course. Language Learning, 54, 134.
Hiver, P., & Al-Hoorie, A. (2016). A dynamic ensemble for second language research: Putting complexity theory into practice. The Modern Language Journal, 100, 741756.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 155.
Jaakkola, T., Wang, J., Yli-Pippari, S., & Liukkonen, J. (2015). A multilevel latent growth modeling of the longitudinal changes in motivation regulations in physical education. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 14, 163171.
Johnson, D. R., & Young, R. (2011). Toward best practices in analyzing datasets with missing data: Comparisons and recommendations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 926945.
Kaplan, A., & Patrick, H. (2016). Learning environments and motivation. In Wentzel, K. R. & Miele, D. B. (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (2nd ed., pp. 251274). New York, NY: Routledge.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford.
Little, R. J. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 11981202.
Loewen, S., Ellis, R., & Hacker, P. (2006). The relationship between an early start in language learning in New Zealand Schools and students’ motivation. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 12, 1634. Retrieved from http://alanz.blogs.auckland.ac.nz/new-zealand-studies-in-applied-linguistics-journal-nzsal/.
Masgoret, A. M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53, 167210.
Mercer, S., Ryan, S., & Williams, M. (2012). Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mercer, S., & Williams, M. (Eds.). (2014). Multiple perspectives on the self in SLA. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus. The comprehensive modelling program for applied researchers: User’s guide, 6. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Noels, K. A. (2001a). Learning Spanish as a second language: Learners’ orientations and perceptions of their teachers’ communication style. Language Learning, 51, 107144.
Noels, K. A. (2001b). New orientations in language learning motivation: Towards a model of intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations and motivation. In Dörnyei, Z. & Schmidt, R. (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 4368). Manoa, HI: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Centre.
Noels, K. A. (2009). The internalization of language learning into the self and social identity. In Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 295313). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Noels, K. A., Clément, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers’ communicative style and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Modern Language Journal, 83, 2334.
Noels, K. A., Chaffee, K. E., Lou, N. M., & Dincer, A. (2016). Self-determination, engagement, and identity in learning German: Some directions in the psychology of language learning motivation. Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen, 46, 1229.
Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 50, 5785.
Norton, B. (2013). Identity and language learning: Extending the conversation. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Peng, J. E., & Woodrow, L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language Learning, 60, 834876.
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667686.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 6878.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 333). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Sayer, A. G., & Cumsille, P. E. (2001). Second-order latent growth models. In Collins, L. M. & Sayer, A. G. (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change: Decade of behavior (pp. 179200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence (pp. 138188). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2012). Developmental dynamics of engagement, coping, and everyday resilience. In Christenson, S., Reschly, A., & Wylie, C. (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 2144). New York, NY: Springer.
Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (2009). Engagement and disaffection as organizational constructs in the dynamics of motivational development. In Wentzel, K. R., & Wigfield, A. (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 223245). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Statistics Canada. (2017). Mother tongue (8), knowledge of official languages (5), language spoken most often at home (8), other language(s) spoken regularly at home (9), age (7) and sex (3) for the population excluding institutional residents of Canada, provinces and territories, census divisions and census subdivisions, 2016 Census (table). 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016052. Ottawa, ON.
Tanaka, H. (2009). Enhancing intrinsic motivation at three levels: The effects of motivational strategies. JALT Journal, 31, 227250.
Tze, V. M. C., Klassen, R. M., & Daniels, L. M. (2014). Patterns of boredom and its relationship with perceived autonomy support and engagement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, 175187.
Vandergrift, L. (2005). Relationships among motivation orientations, metacognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied Linguistics, 26, 7089.
Waninge, F., Dörnyei, Z., & de Bot, K. (2014). Motivational dynamics in language learning: Change, stability, and context. The Modern Language Journal, 98, 704723.
Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R., & Davis-Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In Damon, W. (Series Ed.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, 6th Ed. Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 9331002). New York, NY: John Wiley.
Wu, X. (2003). Intrinsic motivation and young language learners: The impact of the classroom environment. System, 31, 501517.
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Noels et al. supplementary material
Appendix

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed