Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-s5ss2 Total loading time: 0.501 Render date: 2021-03-01T22:06:42.091Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Revivalism, Emigration and Religious Networks in Nineteenth-Century Norway

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 February 2016

Dag Thorkildsen
Affiliation:
University of Oslo
Get access

Extract

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, state, society and church were almost identical units in Norway, and with the exception of guilds, minor rural fellowships and small groups influenced by Moravian piety, there was no civil society, in the sense of a sphere between family, market and public affairs.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Ecclesiastical History Society 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1 The only European nation with a higher number of emigrants was Ireland.

2 The Evangelical-Lutheran religion was to remain the religion of state and regent. All Christian religious sects were granted freedom of religious practice; Jews, however, were still excluded from the realm.

3 Thorkildsen, Dag, ‘Lutherdom, vekkelse og de nordiske velferdsstater’, Temp: Tidsskrift for historie, no. 1 (2010), 13144.Google Scholar

4 Cf. Article 14, ‘Of Ecclesiastical Orders’, which states that none should publicly teach in the church or administer the sacraments unless regularly called (Latin: rite roca/ws). This is usually interpreted as a requirement of ordination.

5 This act was abolished by Parliament in 1842, an important step on the road to freedom of assembly.

6 Protests and local uprisings had occurred among the Norwegian farmers during the last decades of the eighteenth century. In the 1780s Christian Lofthuus had been the leader of a peasant rebellion. For that, he had been given a life sentence and was incarcerated in the castle of Akershus in Christiania (now Oslo), where he died in 1797. one year after Hauge started to preach.

7 Christiansfeld was founded in 1773 and was named after King Christian VII.

8 Such confessionally orientated confirmation had been introduced in Denmark Norway by the pietistic King Christian VI in 1736.

9 Amundsen, Arne Bugge, ‘Books, Letters and Communication: Hans Nielsen Hauge and the Haugean Movement in Norway, 1796–1840’, in idem, ed., Revival and Communication: Studies in the History of Scandinavian Revivals 1700–2000 (Lund, 2007), 4564.Google Scholar

10 To travel from one part of the country to another one needed a permission or a pass issued by a civil servant.

11 Altogether Hauge was arrested n times.

12 The Norwegian constitution gave the king only a postponing veto, not an absolute veto as in Sweden.

13 In his first books Hauge accused the clergy of heretical and rationalistic preaching.

14 Amundsen, , ‘Books, Letters and Communication’, 502.Google Scholar

15 Golf, Olav, Den haugianske kvinnebevegelse (Oslo, 1998), 1819.Google Scholar

16 The first female Norwegian minister, Ingrid Bjerkàs, was ordained in March 1961.

17 Amundsen, , ‘Books, Letters and Communication’, 49.Google Scholar

18 Seip, Jens Arup, Utsikt over Norges historie, 2: Tidsrommet ca. 1850–1884 (1981), 447.Google Scholar

19 Thorkildsen, Dag, Nasjonalitet, identitet og moral, KULTs skriftserie, Norges allmennvitenskaplige forskningsràd 33 (Oslo, 1995), 2637.Google Scholar

20 It had begun earlier in the eighteenth century as a reaction against Enlightenment-influenced church reforms.

21 Lausten, Martin Schwarz, Danmarks kirkehistorie, 2nd edn (Copenhagen, 1987), 234.Google Scholar

22 Kvens are persons of Finnish descent living in northern Norway. They are accepted as an ethnic minority.

23 Lilly-Anne Ø. Elgvin, ‘Innlegg pâ konferansen ‘Kjonnsmakt i Norden’, paper delivered at the workshop ‘Rettighetspolitikk’, Oslo, 12–13 June 2003, online at <http://kjonn.maktutredningen.no/aktuelt/715>.

24 Golf, Olav, Haugebeuegelse og folkeopplysning 1800–1860: utgitt I forbindelse mea Hauge-jubtléet I 1996, Rapport 6 (Oslo, 1996), 253.Google Scholar

25 By 1914 Denmark had 83 folk high schools and the movement was established in Norway, Sweden and Finland; isolated examples operated in the USA, the UK, Japan, Czechoslovakia and Switzerland.

26 The Church of Denmark and Church of Norway base their Lutheran confession on the Bible, the Apostles’ Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, the Augsburg Confession and Luther’s Shorter Catechism.

27 Canuteson, Richard L., ‘The Kendall Settlement’, Norwegian-American Studies 27 (1977), 24355.Google Scholar

28 In 1879 this name was changed to the Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Congregation. As other congregations of Finns in Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota and Oregon were organized on the same basis, they came into fellowship with this body under the name of the Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church, or (as it is usually called) the Apostolic Lutheran Church.

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 6 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 1st March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Revivalism, Emigration and Religious Networks in Nineteenth-Century Norway
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Revivalism, Emigration and Religious Networks in Nineteenth-Century Norway
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Revivalism, Emigration and Religious Networks in Nineteenth-Century Norway
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *