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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 17 February 2016
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, state, society and church were almost identical units in Norway, and with the exception of guilds, minor rural fellowships and small groups influenced by Moravian piety, there was no civil society, in the sense of a sphere between family, market and public affairs.
1 The only European nation with a higher number of emigrants was Ireland.
2 The Evangelical-Lutheran religion was to remain the religion of state and regent. All Christian religious sects were granted freedom of religious practice; Jews, however, were still excluded from the realm.
3 Thorkildsen, Dag, ‘Lutherdom, vekkelse og de nordiske velferdsstater’, Temp: Tidsskrift for historie, no. 1 (2010), 131–44.Google Scholar
4 Cf. Article 14, ‘Of Ecclesiastical Orders’, which states that none should publicly teach in the church or administer the sacraments unless regularly called (Latin: rite roca/ws). This is usually interpreted as a requirement of ordination.
5 This act was abolished by Parliament in 1842, an important step on the road to freedom of assembly.
6 Protests and local uprisings had occurred among the Norwegian farmers during the last decades of the eighteenth century. In the 1780s Christian Lofthuus had been the leader of a peasant rebellion. For that, he had been given a life sentence and was incarcerated in the castle of Akershus in Christiania (now Oslo), where he died in 1797. one year after Hauge started to preach.
7 Christiansfeld was founded in 1773 and was named after King Christian VII.
8 Such confessionally orientated confirmation had been introduced in Denmark Norway by the pietistic King Christian VI in 1736.
9 Amundsen, Arne Bugge, ‘Books, Letters and Communication: Hans Nielsen Hauge and the Haugean Movement in Norway, 1796–1840’, in idem, ed., Revival and Communication: Studies in the History of Scandinavian Revivals 1700–2000 (Lund, 2007), 45–64.Google Scholar
10 To travel from one part of the country to another one needed a permission or a pass issued by a civil servant.
11 Altogether Hauge was arrested n times.
12 The Norwegian constitution gave the king only a postponing veto, not an absolute veto as in Sweden.
13 In his first books Hauge accused the clergy of heretical and rationalistic preaching.
16 The first female Norwegian minister, Ingrid Bjerkàs, was ordained in March 1961.
18 Seip, Jens Arup, Utsikt over Norges historie, 2: Tidsrommet ca. 1850–1884 (1981), 44–7.Google Scholar
19 Thorkildsen, Dag, Nasjonalitet, identitet og moral, KULTs skriftserie, Norges allmennvitenskaplige forskningsràd 33 (Oslo, 1995), 26–37.Google Scholar
20 It had begun earlier in the eighteenth century as a reaction against Enlightenment-influenced church reforms.
22 Kvens are persons of Finnish descent living in northern Norway. They are accepted as an ethnic minority.
23 Lilly-Anne Ø. Elgvin, ‘Innlegg pâ konferansen ‘Kjonnsmakt i Norden’, paper delivered at the workshop ‘Rettighetspolitikk’, Oslo, 12–13 June 2003, online at <http://kjonn.maktutredningen.no/aktuelt/715>.
24 Golf, Olav, Haugebeuegelse og folkeopplysning 1800–1860: utgitt I forbindelse mea Hauge-jubtléet I 1996, Rapport 6 (Oslo, 1996), 253.Google Scholar
25 By 1914 Denmark had 83 folk high schools and the movement was established in Norway, Sweden and Finland; isolated examples operated in the USA, the UK, Japan, Czechoslovakia and Switzerland.
26 The Church of Denmark and Church of Norway base their Lutheran confession on the Bible, the Apostles’ Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, the Augsburg Confession and Luther’s Shorter Catechism.
27 Canuteson, Richard L., ‘The Kendall Settlement’, Norwegian-American Studies 27 (1977), 243–55.Google Scholar
28 In 1879 this name was changed to the Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Congregation. As other congregations of Finns in Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota and Oregon were organized on the same basis, they came into fellowship with this body under the name of the Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church, or (as it is usually called) the Apostolic Lutheran Church.
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