Skip to main content Accessibility help

Mainstreaming Effective Employment Support for Individuals with Health Conditions: An Analytical Framework for the Effective Design of Modified Individual Placement and Support (IPS) Models

  • Adam Whitworth (a1)


Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a highly effective model of employment support for individuals with severe mental health conditions. Its potential modification for new settings and larger cohorts is of keen interest across advanced economies given shared health-related (un)employment challenges. Despite mushrooming policy interest and activity around modified IPS a significant barrier and risk at present is the absence of a well-considered analytical framework to enable structured critical reflection about the effective translation of IPS principles and fidelity into modified IPS services. This article fills this void through the presentation for the first time in the literature of such an analytical framework, unpacking as it does so a set of key original analytical distinctions that are unhelpfully homogenised in current literature and policy thinking and highlighting the wider potential of IPS principles and models to the nature of good employment support for other individuals with health conditions and disabilities.



Hide All
Bond, G., Becker, D., Drake, R. and Vogler, K. (1997) ‘A fidelity scale for the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment’, Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 40, 4, 265–84.
Bond, G., Campbell, K., Evans, L., Gervey, R., Pascaris, A., Tice, S., Del Bene, D. and Revell, G (2002) ‘A scale to measure quality of supported employment for persons with severe mental illness’, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 17, 239–50.
Bond, G., Drake, R. and Becker, D. (2008) ‘An update on randomized controlled trials of evidence-based supported employment’, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31, 4, 280–90.
Bond, G., Becker, D. and Drake, R. (2011) ‘Measurement of fidelity of implementation of evidence-based practices: case example of the IPS fidelity scale’, Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 18, 126–41.
Bond, G., Drake, R. and Becker, D. (2012a) ‘Generalizability of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment outside the US’, World Psychiatry, 11, 1, 32–9.
Bond, G., Peterson, A., Becker, D. and Drake, R. (2012b) ‘Validation of the Individual Placement and Support fidelity scale (IPS-25)’, Psychiatric Services, 63, 8, 758–63.
Burns, T. and Catty, J. (2008) ‘IPS in Europe: the EQOLISE trial’, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31, 4, 313–7.
Burns, T., Yeeles, K., Langford, O., Vazquez Montes, A. and Burgess, J. (2015) ‘A randomised controlled trial of time-limited individual placement and support: IPS-LITE trial’, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207, 351–6.
Campbell, K., Bond, G. and Drake, R. (2010) ‘Client predictors of employment outcomes in high-fidelity supported employment’, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 8, 556– 63.
Centre for Mental Health (CMH) (2015) The IPS Fidelity Scale, [accessed 16.10.2018].
Considine, M., Lewis, J., O'Sullivan, S. and Sol, E. (2015) Getting Welfare to Work: Street-Level Governance in Australia, the UK and the Netherlands, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Coole, C., Drummond, A. and Watson, P. (2012) ‘Individual work support for employed patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled pilot trial’, Clinical Rehabilitation, 27, 1, 4050.
Department for Work and Pensions-Department of Health (DWP-DH) (2016) Work, Health and Disability Green Paper Data Pack, Technical Annex, [accessed 24.01.2017].
Dolan, P., Peasgood, T. and White, M. (2008) ‘Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 29, 94122.
Eleveld, A. (2017) ‘Activation policies: policies of social inclusion or social exclusion?’, Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, 25, 3, 277–85.
Ellison, M., Klodnick, V., Bond, G., Krzos, I., Kaiser, S., Fagan, M. and Davis, M. (2015) ’Adapting supported employment for emerging adults with serious mental health conditions’, The Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 42, 2, 206–22.
Eurostat (2018) Disability Statistics – Employment Patterns [accessed 08.08.2018].
Ferguson, K., Xie, B. and Glynn, S. (2012) ‘Adapting the individual placement and support model with homeless young adults’, Child Youth Care Forum, 41, 277–94.
Fletcher, D. and Wright, S. (2017) ‘A hand up or a slap down? Criminalising benefit claimants in Britain via strategies of surveillance, sanctions and deterrence’, Critical Social Policy, doi: 10.1177/0261018317726622.
Kim, S., Bond, G., Becker, D., Swanson, S. and Langfitt-Reese, S. (2015) ‘Predictive validity of the Individual Placement and Support fidelity scale (IPS-25): a replication study’, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 43, 209–16.
Li-Tsang, C., Li, E., Lam, C., Hui, K. and Chan, C. (2008) ‘The effect of a job placement and support program for workers with musculoskeletal injuries: a randomized control trial (RCT) study’, Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 18, 3, 299306.
Lockett, H., Waghorn, G., Kydd, R. and Chant, D. (2016) ‘Predictive validity of evidence-based practices in supported employment: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Mental Health Review Journal, 21, 4, 261–81.
Luciano, A., Drake, R., Bond, G., Becker, D., Carpenter-Song, E., Lord, S., Swarbrick, P. and Swanson, S (2014) ‘Evidence-based supported employment for people with severe mental illness: past, current, and future research’, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 40, 113.
Margolies, P., Humensky, J., Chiang, I., Covell, N., Broadway-Wilson, K., Gregory, R., Jewell, T., Scannevin, G., Baker, S. and Dixon, L. (2017) ‘Is there a role for fidelity self-assessment in the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment?’, Psychiatric Services, 68, 9, 975–8.
Margolies, P., Humensky, J., Chiang, I., Covell, N., Jewell, T., Broadway-Wilson, K., Gregory, R., Scannevin, G. and Dixon, L. (2018) ‘Relationship between self-assessed fidelity and self-reported employment in the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment’, Psychiatric Services, 69, 5, 609–12.
Marshall, T., Goldberg, R., Braude, L., Dougherty, R., Daniels, A., Shom Ghose, S., George, P. and Delphin-Rittmon, M. (2014) ‘Supported employment: assessing the evidence, Psychiatric Services, 65, 1, 1623.
McGrew, J. and Griss, M. (2005) ‘Concurrent and predictive validity of two scales to assess the fidelity of implementation of supported employment’, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 29, 1, 41–7.
McGurk, S., Twamley, E., Sitzer, D, McHugo, G. and Muser, K. (2007) ‘A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1791–802.
Metcalfe, J., Drake, R. and Bond, G. (2018) ‘Economic, labor and regulatory moderators of the effect of Individual Placement and Support among people with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44, 1, 2231.
Modini, M., Tan, L., Brinchmann, B., Wang, M. J., Killackey, E., Glozier, N., Mykletun, A. and Harvey, S. (2016) ‘Supported employment for people with severe mental illness: systematic review and meta-analysis of the international evidence’, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 1, 19.
Mowbray, C., Holter, M., Teague, G. and Bybee, D. (2003) ‘Fidelity criteria: development, measurement, and validation’, American Journal of Evaluation, 24, 3, 315–40.
Mueser, K., Drake, R. and Bond, G. (2016) ‘Recent advances in supported employment for people with serious mental illness’, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29, 196201.
OECD (2015) Fit Mind, Fit Job: From Evidence to Practice in Mental Health and Work, Mental Health and Work, Paris: OECD Publishing.
Oguz, S., Merad, S. and Snape, D. (2013) Measuring National Well-Being – What Matters Most to Personal Well-Being?, London: Office for National Statistics.
Paulson, R., Post, R., Herinckx, H. and Risser, P. (2002) ‘Beyond components: using fidelity scales to measure and assure choice in program implementation and quality assurance’, Community Mental Health Journal, 38, 2, 119–28.
Poremski, D., Rabouin, D. and Latimer, E. (2017) ‘A randomised controlled trial of evidence based supported employment for people who have recently been homeless and have a mental illness’, Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 44, 217–24.
Smith, D., Atmatzidis, K., Capogreco, M., Lloyd-Randolfi, D. and Seman, V. (2017) ‘Evidence-based interventions for increasing work participation for persons with various disabilities: A systematic review’, OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 37, 25, 3S–13S.
Suijkerbuijk, Y., Schaafsma, F., van Mechelen, J., Ojajarvi, A., Corbiere, M. and Anema, J. (2017) ‘Interventions for obtaining and maintaining employment in adults with severe mental illness, a network meta-analysis’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, 9, doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011867.pub2.
Sveinsdottir, V., Løvvik, C., Fyhn, T., Monstad, K., Ludvigsen, K., Øverland, S. and Reme, S. (2014) ‘Protocol for the effect evaluation of Individual Placement and Support (IPS): a randomized controlled multicenter trial of IPS versus treatment as usual for patients with moderate to severe mental illness in Norway’, BMC Psychiatry, 14: 307.
van Stolk, C., Hofman, J., Hafner, M. and Janta, B. (2014) Psychological Wellbeing and Work: Improving Service Provision and Outcomes, London: Department for Work and Pensions and Department of Health, [accessed 12.03.2017].
Waddell, G. and Burton, K. (2006) Is Work Good for your Health and Wellbeing? An Independent Review, London: The Stationery Office, [accessed 22.05.2017].
Work and Pensions Select Committee (WPSC) (2016) The Future of Jobcentre Plus: Second Report of Session 2016–17, HC57, London: House of Commons, [accessed 04.02.2017].
Work and Pensions Select Committee (WPSC) (2017) Disability Employment Gap: Seventh Report of Session 2016–17, HC56, London: House of Commons, [accessed 16.03.2017].



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed