Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Variations in seed micromorphology of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium (Cypripedioideae, Orchidaceae)

  • Feng-Ping Zhang (a1) (a2), Juan-Juan Zhang (a1), Ning Yan (a1) (a2), Hong Hu (a1) (a2) and Shi-Bao Zhang (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

The micromorphology of a seed is linked to its dispersal and germination, but evolutionary and ecological aspects in Orchidaceae remain unclear. We investigated the seed characters of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium that might be associated with life form and involved in possible ecological adaptations. A phylogenetic comparative analysis of nine seed micromorphological characters was performed in 24 species from two genera with close phylogenetic relationships but significant differences in their ecological characteristics. Species within Paphiopedilum had larger embryos and a smaller percentage of air space (AS) than those of Cypripedium species. Compared with 16 terrestrial species, two epiphytic Paphiopedilum species had larger embryos and smaller AS. Those larger embryos might ensure more successful seedling establishment while the higher amount of air space in both terrestrial Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium may increase seed buoyancy and enable them to disperse over longer distances. Whereas AS and seed length (SL) are phylogenetically conservative, most other characters examined here had weak signals, indicating clear convergent evolution. Across species, SL was positively correlated with AS, indicating a high degree of seed size–dispersal coordination. These findings may imply a trade-off of seed characters in relation to the possible ecological adaptations required for seedling establishment versus dispersal.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence E-mail: yanning@mail.kib.ac.cn and huhong@mail.kib.ac.cn

References

Hide All
Arditti, J. and Ghani, A.K.A. (2000) Numerical and physical properties of orchid seeds and their biological implications. New Phytologist 145, 367421.
Arditti, J., Michaud, J.D. and Healey, P.L. (1979) Morphometry of orchid seeds. I. Paphiopedilum and native Californian and related species of Cypripedium. American Journal of Botany 66, 11281137.
Arditti, J., Michaud, J. and Healey, P. (1980) Morphometry of orchid seeds. II. Native Californian and related species of Calypso, Cephalanthera, Corallorhiza and Epipactis . American Journal of Botany 67, 347360.
Arditti, J., Clements, G., Fast, G., Hadley, G., Nishimura, G. and Ernst, R. (1982) Orchid seed germination and seedling culture: a manual. pp. 244370 in Arditti, J. (Ed.) Orchid biology: Reviews and perspectives. Ithaca, New York, Comstock Publishing Associates.
Augustine, J., Yogendrakumar, J. and Sharma, J. (2001) Orchids of India. II. Biodiversity and status of Bulbophyllum . Trinagar, New Delhi, Thou Daya Publishing House.
Averyanov, L., Cribb, P., Loc, P.K. and Hiep, N.T. (2003) Slipper orchids of Vietnam. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens, Compass Press.
Aybeke, M. (2007) The pollen and seed morphology of some Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae) taxa. Journal of Plant Biology 50, 387395.
Barthlott, W. (1976) Morphologie der Samen von Orchiden im Hinblick auf taxonomische und funktionelle Aspekte. pp. 444455 in Proceedings of the 8th World Orchid Conference, Frankfurt, Germany .
Blomberg, S.P., Garland, T.J. and Ives, A.R. (2003) Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57, 717745.
Bream, G.J. (1988) Paphiopedilum. Hildesheim, Germany, Brucke-Verlag Kurt Schersow.
Chase, M.W. and Pippen, J.S. (1988) Seed morphology in the Oncidiinae and related subtribes (Orchidaceae). Systematic Botany 13, 313323.
Chaudhary, B., Chattopadhyay, P. and Banerjee, N. (2014) Modulations in seed micromorphology reveal signature of adaptive species-diversification in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). Open Journal of Ecology 4, 3342.
Chemisquy, M.A., Prevosti, F.J. and Morrone, O. (2009) Seed morphology in the tribe Chloraeeae (Orchidaceae): combining traditional and geometric morphometrics. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 160, 171183.
Chen, S.C. and Liu, Z.J. (2002) Paphiopedilum rhizomatosum, a new species of Orchidaceae from Myanmar. Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research 20, 1213.
Chen, S.C., Zhu, G.H., Ji, Z.H., Lang, K.Y., Luo, Y.B. and Cribb, P. (2005) Floral of China. Vol.25. Beijing, Science Press and St. Louis, Missouri, Missouri Botanical Garden.
Chen, S.C., Liu, Z.J. and Chen, L.J. (2013) The genus Cypripedium in China. Beijing, Science Press.
Clements, M. (1999) Embryology. pp. 3855 in Pridgeon, A.M.; Cribb, P.J.; Chase, M.W.; Rasmussen, F.N. (Eds) Genera Orchidacearum, general introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Clifford, H.T. and Smith, W.K. (1969) Seed morphology and classification of Orchidaceae. Phytomorphology 19, 133139.
Cox, A.V., Pridgeon, A.M., Albert, V.A. and Chase, M.W. (1997) Phylogenetics of the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae, Orchidaceae): nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Plant Systematics and Evolution 208, 197223.
Cribb, P. (1997) The genus Cypripedium . Portland, Oregon, Timber Press.
Cribb, P. (1998) The genus Paphiopedilum (2nd edition). Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo, Natural History Publications.
Dressler, R. (1993) Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. Portland, Oregon, Dioscorides Press.
Guo, Y.Y., Luo, Y.B., Liu, Z.J. and Wang, X.Q. (2012) Evolution and biogeography of the slipper orchids: Eocene vicariance of the conduplicate genera in the Old and New World tropics. PLoS One 7, e38788.
Healey, P.L., Michaud, J.D. and Arditti, J. (1980) Morphometry of orchid seeds. III. Native Californian and related species of Goodyera, Piperia, Platanthera and Spiranthes . American Journal of Botany 67, 508518.
Koopowitz, H., Comstock, J. and Woodin, C. (2008) Tropical slipper orchids: Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium species and hybrids. Portland, Oregon, Timber Press.
Lan, T.Y. and Albert, V.A. (2011) Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid. BMC Plant Biology 11, 126.
Lang, K.Y., Chen, S.C. and Ji, Z.H. (1999) Floral of China. Vol.17. Beijing, Science Press.
Larry, H. (1995) Seed morphology of Hydrangeaceae and its phylogenetic implications. International Journal of Plant Science 156, 555580.
Li, J.H., Liu, Z.J., Salazar, G.A., Bernhardt, P., Perner, H., Tomohisa, Y., Jin, X.H., Chung, S.W. and Luo, Y.B. (2011) Molecular phylogeny of Cypripedium (Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61, 308320.
Liu, Z.J., Chen, S.C., Chen, L.J. and Lei, S.P. (2009) The genus Paphiopedilum in China. Beijing, Science Press.
Mathews, J. and Levins, P. (1986) The systematic significance of seed morphology in Portulaca (Portulacaceae) under scanning electron microscopy. Systematic Botany 11, 302308.
Molvray, M. and Chase, M. (1999) Seed morphology. pp. 5966 in Pridgeon, A.M.; Cribb, P.J.; Chase, M.W.; Rasmussen, F.N. (Eds) Genera Orchidaceaerum, general introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Molvray, M. and Kores, P. (1995) Character analysis of the seed coat in Spiranthoideae and Orchidoideae, with special reference to the Diurideae (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 82, 14431454.
Murren, C.J. and Ellison, A.M. (1998) Seed dispersal characteristics of Brassavola nodosa (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 85, 675689.
Ness, B. (1989) Seed morphology and taxonomic relationships in Calochotus (Liliaceae). Systematic Botany 14, 495505.
R Development Core Team . (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria, R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Swamy, K.K., Kumar, H.N.K., Ramakrishna, T. and Ramaswamy, S.N. (2004) Studies on seed morphometry of epiphytic orchids from Western Ghats of Karnataka. TaiwanTaibei 49, 123140.
Swamy, K., Kumar, H. and Ramaswamy, S. (2007) Studies on seed morphometry of Dendrobium species. Phytomorphology 57, 3343.
Tsutsumi, C., Yukawa, T., Lee, N.S., Lee, C.S. and Kato, M. (2007) Phylogeny and comparative seed morphology of epiphytic and terrestrial species of Liparis (Orchidaceae) in Japan. Journal of Plant Research 120, 405412.
Zhang, S.B., Guan, Z.J., Sun, M., Zhang, J.J., Cao, K.F. and Hu, H. (2012) Evolutionary association of stomatal traits with leaf vein density in Paphiopedilum, Orchidaceae. PLoS One 7, E40080.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Seed Science Research
  • ISSN: 0960-2585
  • EISSN: 1475-2735
  • URL: /core/journals/seed-science-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed