Amaya, I., Botella, M.A., de la Calle, M., Medina, M.I., Heredia, A., Bressan, R.A., Hasegawa, P.M., Quesada, M.A. and Valpuesta, V. (1999) Improved germination under osmotic stress of tobacco plants overexpressing a cell wall peroxidase. FEBS Letters 457, 80–84.
Arcila, J. and Mohapatra, S.C. (1983) Development of tobacco seedling. 2. Morphogenesis during radicle protrusion. Tobacco Science 27, 35–40.
Asthir, B., Spoor, W., Duffus, C. and Parton, R.M. (2001) The location of (1–3)-β-glucan in the nucellar projection and in the vascular tissue of the crease in developing barley grain using a (1–3)-β-glucan-specific monoclonal antibody. Planta 214, 85–88.
Avery, G.S.J. (1933) Structure and germination of tobacco seed and the developmental anatomy of the seedling plant. American Journal of Botany 20, 309–327.
Bathgate, G.N., Palmer, G.H. and Wilson, G. (1974) The action of endo-β-1,3-glucanases on barley and malt β-glucans. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 80, 278–285.
Benech-Arnold, R.L., Giallorenzi, M.C., Frank, J. and Rodriguez, V. (1999) Termination of hull-imposed dormancy in developing barley grains is correlated with changes in embryonic ABA levels and sensitivity. Seed Science Research 9, 39–47.
Beresniewicz, M.M., Taylor, A.G., Goffinet, M.C. and Koeller, W.D. (1995) Chemical nature of a semipermeable layer in seed coats of leek, onion (Liliaceae), tomato and pepper (Solanaceae). Seed Science and Technology 23, 135–145.
Bethke, P.C. and Jones, R.L. (2001) Cell death of barley aleurone protoplasts is mediated by reactive oxygen species. The Plant Journal 25, 19–29.
Bewley, J.D. (1997a) Breaking down the walls – a role for endo-β-mannanase in release from seed dormancy? Trends in Plant Science 2, 464–469.
Bewley, J.D. (1997b) Seed germination and dormancy. The Plant Cell 9, 1055–1066.
Bihlmeier, M. (1927) Der Einfluss der Vorquellung und der Samenschale auf die Keimung lichtgeförderter Samen. Jahrbücher für Wissenschaftliche Botanik 67, 702–732.
Boller, T. (1995) Chemoperception of microbial signals in plant cells. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 46, 189–214.
Brown, R.C., Lemmon, B.E., Stone, B.A. and Olsen, O.A. (1997) Cell wall (1→3)- and (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucans during early grain development in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Planta 202, 414–426.
Bucciaglia, P.A. and Smith, A.G. (1994) Cloning and characterization of Tag1, a tobacco anther β-1,3-glucanase expressed during tetrad dissolution. Plant Molecular Biology 24, 903–914.
Buchner, P., Rochat, C., Wuilleme, S. and Boutin, J.P. (2002) Characterization of a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated β-1,3-glucanase gene in pea. Plant Molecular Biology 49, 171–186.
Caruso, C., Chilosi, G., Caporale, C., Leonardi, L., Bertini, L., Magro, P. and Buonocore, V. (1999) Induction of pathogenesis-related proteins in germinating wheat seeds infected with Fusarium culmorum. Plant Science 140, 87–97.
Chen, F. and Bradford, K.J. (2000) Expression of an expansin is associated with endosperm weakening during tomato seed germination. Plant Physiology 124, 1265–1274.
Chen, F., Dahal, P. and Bradford, K.J. (2001) Two tomato expansin genes show divergent expression and localization in embryos during seed development and germination. Plant Physiology 127, 928–936.
Cheong, Y.H., Kim, C.Y., Chun, H.J., Moon, B.C., Park, H.C., Kim, J.K., Lee, S.H., Han, C.D., Lee, S.Y. and Cho, M.J. (2000) Molecular cloning of a soybean class III β-1,3-glucanase gene that is regulated both developmentally and in response to pathogen infection. Plant Science 154, 71–81.
Cordero, M.J., Raventos, D. and San Segundo, B. (1994) Differential expression and induction of chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases in response to fungal infection during germination of maize seeds. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions 7, 23–31.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1999) Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 50, 391–417.
Czakó, M., Jang, J.-C., Herr, J.M. and Márton, L. (1992) Differential manifestation of seed mortality induced by seed-specific expression of the gene for diphtheria toxin A chain in Arabidopsis and tobacco. Molecular and General Genetics 235, 33–40.
Debeaujon, I. and Koornneef, M. (2000) Gibberellin requirement for Arabidopsis seed germination is determined both by testa characteristics and embryonic abscisic acid. Plant Physiology 122, 415–424.
Debeaujon, I., Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M. and Koornneef, M. (2000) Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 122, 403–413.
Demolder, J.De Backer, M., Fiers, W. and Contreras, R. (1993) Phenotypic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after regulated expression of β-1,3-glucanase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Journal of Biotechnology 27, 295–305.
Doblin, M.S., DeMelis, L., Newbigin, E., Bacic, A. and Read, S.M. (2001) Pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata express two genes from different β-glucan synthase families. Plant Physiology 125, 2040–2052.
Dutta, S., Bradford, K.J. and Nevins, D.J. (1994) Cell-wall autohydrolysis in isolated endosperms of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Plant Physiology 104, 623–628.
Emmler, K. and Schäfer, E. (1997) Maternal effect on embryogenesis in tobacco overexpressing rice phytochrome A. Botanica Acta 110, 1–8.
Fieldes, M.A. and Gerhardt, K.E. (2001) Developmental and genetic regulation of β-glucosidase (linamarase) activity in flax seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 158, 977–989.
Fischnich, O. and Lübbert, G. (1955) Fruchtbildung bei Kartoffeln und Förderung der Keimschnelligkeit ihrer Samen. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 31, 179–206.
Fobert, P.R., Labbé, H., Cosmopoulos, J., Gottlob-McHugh, S., Ouellet, T., Hattori, J., Sunohara, G., Iyer, V.N. and Miki, B.L. (1994) T-DNA tagging of a seed coat-specific cryptic promoter in tobacco. The Plant Journal 6, 567–577.
Frey, A., Audran, C., Marin, E., Sotta, B. and Marion-Poll, A. (1999) Engineering seed dormancy by the modification of zeaxanthin epoxidase gene expression. Plant Molecular Biology 39, 1267–1274.
Gomes, V.M., Oliveira, A.E.A. and Xavier-Filho, J. (1996) A chitinase and a β-1,3-glucanase isolated from the seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) inhibit the growth of fungi and insect pests of the seed. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 72, 86–90.
Gomez, L., Allona, I., Casado, R. and Aragoncillo, C. (2002) Seed chitinases. Seed Science Research 12, 217–230.
Grappin, P., Bouinot, D., Sotta, B., Miginiac, E. and Jullien, M. (2000) Control of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: post-imbibition abscisic acid synthesis imposes dormancy maintenance. Planta 210, 279–285.
Grenier, J., Potvin, C., Trudel, J. and Asselin, A. (1999) Some thaumatin-like proteins hydrolyse polymeric β-1,3-glucans. The Plant Journal 19, 473–480.
Groot, S.P.C. and Karssen, C.M. (1987) Gibberellins regulate seed germination in tomato by endosperm weakening: A study with gibberellin-deficient mutants. Planta 171, 525–531.
Groot, S.P.C., Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B., Vermeer, E. and Karssen, C.M. (1988) Gibberellin-induced hydrolysis of endosperm cell walls in gibberellin-deficient tomato seeds prior to radicle protrusion. Planta 174, 500–504.
Harvey, A.J., Hrmova, M. and Fincher, G.B. (2001) Regulation of genes encoding β-D-glucan glucohydrolases in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Physiologia Plantarum 113, 108–120.
Hasegawa, R., Tada, T., Torii, Y. and Esashi, Y. (1994) Presence of β-cyanoalanine synthase in unimbibed dry seeds and its activation by ethylene during pre-germination. Physiologia Plantarum 91, 141–146.
Helleboid, S., Chapman, A., Hendriks, T., Inze, D., Vasseur, J. and Hilbert, J.L. (2000) Cloning of β-1,3-glucanases expressed during Cichorium somatic embryogenesis. Plant Molecular Biology 42, 377–386.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. (1995) A critical update on seed dormancy. I. Primary dormancy. Seed Science Research 5, 61–73.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Downie, B. (1996) Primary dormancy in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker): Studies with the sitiens mutant. Journal of Experimental Botany 47, 89–97.
Hilhorst, H.W.M., Groot, S.P.C. and Bino, R.J. (1998) The tomato seed as a model system to study seed development and germination. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 47, 169–183.
Høj, P.B. and Fincher, G.B. (1995) Molecular evolution of plant β-glucan endohydrolases. The Plant Journal 7, 367–379.
Honing, J.A. (1930) Nucleus and plasma in the heredity of the need of light for germination in Nicotiana seeds. Genetica 12, 441–476.
Hrmova, M. and Fincher, G.B. (2001) Structure–function relationships of β-D-glucan endo- and exohydrolases from higher plants. Plant Molecular Biology 47, 73–91.
HrmovaM., De M., De, Gori, R., Smith, B.J., Fairweather, J.K., Driguez, H., Varghese, J.N. and Fincher, G.B. (2002) Structural basis for broad substrate specificity in higher plant β-D-glucan glucohydrolases. The Plant Cell 14, 1033–1052.
Iglesias, V.A. and Meins, F. (2000) Movement of plant viruses is delayed in a β-1,3-glucanase-deficient mutant showing a reduced plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit and enhanced callose deposition. The Plant Journal 21, 157–166.
Ikuma, H. and Thimann, K.V. (1963) The role of the seed-coats in germination of photosensitive lettuce seeds. Plant and Cell Physiology 4, 169–185.
Jakobsen, K.S., Hughes, D.W. and Galau, G.A. (1994) Simultaneous induction of postabscission and germination mRNAs in cultured dicotyledonous embryos. Planta 192, 384–394.
Jiang, L., Abrams, S.R. and Kermode, A.R. (1996) Vicilin and napin storage-protein gene promoters are responsive to abscisic acid in developing tobacco seed but lose sensitivity following premature desiccation. Plant Physiology 110, 1135–1144.
Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellog, E.A. and Stevens, P.F. (1999) Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates Inc.
Kamiya, Y. and Garcia-Martinez, J.L. (1999) Regulation or gibberellin biosynthesis by light. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2, 398–403.
Karssen, C.M. and Laçka, E. (1986) A revision of the hormone balance theory of seed dormancy: Studies on gibberellin and/or abscisic acid-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. pp. 315–323. in Bopp, M. (Ed.) Plant growth substances 1985. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
Kasperbauer, M.J. (1968) Dark-germination of reciprocal hybrid seed from light-requiring and -indifferent Nicotiana tabacum. Physiologia Plantarum 21, 1308–1311.
Kelly, K.M., van Staden, J. and Bell, W.E. (1992) Seed coat structure and dormancy. Plant Growth Regulation 11, 201–209.
Kim, J.B., Olek, A.T. and Carpita, N.C. (2000) Cell wall and membrane-associated exo-β-D-glucanases from developing maize seedlings. Plant Physiology 123, 471–485.
Kincaid, R.R. (1935) The effects of certain environmental factors on the germination of Florida cigar-wrapper tobacco seeds. Technical Bulletin of the University of Florida Agricultural Experimental Station 277, 5–47.
Klarzynski, O., Plesse, B., Joubert, J.M., Yvin, J.C., Kopp, M., Kloareg, B. and Fritig, B. (2000) Linear β-1,3-glucans are elicitors of defense responses in tobacco. Plant Physiology 124, 1027–1037.
Koornneef, M., Bentsink, L. and Hilhorst, H. (2002) Seed dormancy and germination. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5, 33–36.
Krabel, D., Eschrich, W., Wirth, S. and Wolf, G. (1993) Callase-(1,3-β-D-glucanase) activity during spring reactivation in deciduous trees. Plant Science 93, 19–23.
Kretsch, T., Emmler, K. and Schäfer, E. (1995) Spatial and temporal pattern of light-regulated gene expression during tobacco seedling development: The photosystem II-related genes Lhcb (Cab) and PsbP (Oee2). The Plant Journal 7, 715–729.
Kunze, I., Kunze, G., Bröker, M., Manteuffel, R., Meins, F. and Müntz, K. (1998) Evidence for secretion of vacuolar α-mannosidase, class I chitinase, and class I β-1,3-glucanase in suspension cultures of tobacco cells. Planta 205, 92–99.
Leah, R., Tommerup, H., Svendsen, I. and Mundy, J. (1991) Biochemical and molecular characterization of three barley seed proteins with antifungal properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266, 1564–1573.
Lehmann, K., Hause, B., Altmann, D. and Kock, M. (2001) Tomato ribonuclease LX with the functional endoplasmic reticulum retention motif HDEF is expressed during programmed cell death processes, including xylem differentiation, germination, and senescence. Plant Physiology 127, 436–449.
Leubner-Metzger, G. (2001) Brassinosteroids and gibberellins promote tobacco seed germination by distinct pathways. Planta 213, 758–763.
Leubner-Metzger, G. (2002) Seed after-ripening and over-expression of class I β-1,3-glucanase confer maternal effects on tobacco testa rupture and dormancy release. Planta 215, 959–968.
Leubner-Metzger, G. and Meins, F. (1999) Functions and regulation of plant β-1,3-glucanases (PR-2). pp. 49–76in Datta, S.K.;Muthukrishnan, S. (eds). Pathogenesis-related proteins in plants. Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press.
Leubner-Metzger, G. and Meins, F. (2000) Sense transformation reveals a novel role for class I β-1,3-glucanase in tobacco seed germination. The Plant Journal 23, 215–221.
Leubner-Metzger, G. and Meins, F. (2001) Antisense-transformation reveals novel roles for class I β-1,3-glucanase in tobacco seed after-ripening and photodormancy. Journal of Experimental Botany 52, 1753–1759.
Leubner-Metzger, G., Fründt, C., Vögeli-Lange, R. and Meins, F. (1995) Class I β-1,3-glucanase in the endosperm of tobacco during germination. Plant Physiology 109, 751–759.
Leubner-Metzger, G., Fründt, C. and Meins, F. (1996) Effects of gibberellins, darkness and osmotica on endosperm rupture and class I β-1,3-glucanase induction in tobacco seed germination. Planta 199, 282–288.
Leubner-Metzger, G., Petruzzelli, L., Waldvogel, R., Vögeli-Lange, R. and Meins, F. (1998) Ethylene-responsive element binding protein (EREBP) expression and the transcriptional regulation of class I β-1,3-glucanase during tobacco seed germination. Plant Molecular Biology 38, 785–795.
Li, B.L. and Foley, M.E. (1997) Genetic and molecular control of seed dormancy. Trends in Plant Science 2, 384–389.
Liotenberg, S., North, H. and Marion-Poll, A. (1999) Molecular biology and regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis in plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 37, 341–350.
Liptay, A. and Schopfer, P. (1983) Effect of water stress, seed coat restraint, and abscisic acid upon different germination capabilities of two tomato lines at low temperature. Plant Physiology 73, 935–938.
Livne, B., Faktor, O., Zeitoune, S., Edelbaum, O. and Sela, I. (1997) TMV-induced expression of tobacco β-glucanase promoter activity is mediated by a single, inverted, GCC motif. Plant Science 130, 159–169.
Marin, E., Nussaume, L., Quesada, A., Gonneau, M., Sotta, B., Hugueney, P., Frey, A. and Marion-Poll, A. (1996) Molecular identification of zeaxanthin epoxidase of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and corresponding to the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana. EMBO Journal 15, 2331–2342.
Matzke, A.J.M., Stoger, E.M. and Matzke, M.A. (1993) A zein gene promoter fragment drives GUS expression in a cell layer that is interposed between the endosperm and the seed coat. Plant Molecular Biology 22, 553–554.
Meikle, P.J., Bonig, I., Hoogenraad, N.J., Clarke, A.E. and Stone, B.A. (1991) The location of (1,3)-β-glucans in the walls of pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata using a (1,3)-β-glucan-specific monoclonal antibody. Planta 185, 1–8.
Meikle, P.J., Hoogenraad, N.J., Bonig, I., Clarke, A.E. and Stone, B.A. (1994) A (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan-specific monoclonal antibody and its use in the quantification and immunocytochemical location of (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucans. The Plant Journal 5, 1–9.
Meins, F., Neuhaus, J.-M., Sperisen, C. and Ryals, J. (1992) The primary structure of plant pathogenesis-related glucanohydrolases and their genes. pp. 245–282in Boller, T.;Meins, F. (Eds.) Genes involved in plant defense. Vienna, Springer-Verlag.
Mella, R.A., Maldonado, S. and Sanchez, R.A. (1994) Phytochrome-induced structural changes and protein degradation prior to radicle protrusion in Datura ferox seeds. Canadian Journal of Botany 73, 1371–1378.
Mo, B.X. and Bewley, J.D. (2002) β-Mannosidase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity during and following germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds. Purification, cloning and characterization. Planta 215, 141–152.
Mohapatra, S.C. and Johnson, W.H. (1978) Development of the tobacco seedling. 1. Relationship between moisture uptake and light sensitivity during seed germination in a flue-cured variety. Tobacco Research 4, 41–49.
Morohashi, Y. (2002) Peroxidase activity develops in the micropylar endosperm of tomato seeds prior to radicle protrusion. Journal of Experimental Botany 53, 1643–1650.
Morohashi, Y. and Matsushima, H. (2000) Development of β-1,3-glucanase activity in germinated tomato seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 1381–1387.
Nguyen, H., Brown, R.C. and Lemmon, B.E. (2002) Cytoskeletal organization of the micropylar endosperm in Coronopus didymus L. (Brassicaceae). Protoplasma 219, 210–220.
Nonogaki, H., Gee, O.H. and Bradford, K.J. (2000) A germination-specific endo-β-mannanase gene is expressed in the micropylar endosperm cap of tomato seeds. Plant Physiology 123, 1235–1245.
Ohta, M., Ohme-Takagi, M. and Shinshi, H. (2000) Three ethylene-responsive transcription factors in tobacco with distinct transactivation functions. The Plant Journal 22, 29–38.
Ori, N., Sessa, G., Lotan, T., Himmelhoch, S. and Fluhr, R. (1990) A major stylar matrix polypeptide (Sp41) is a member of the pathogenesis-related proteins superclass. EMBO Journal 9, 3429–3436.
Osmond, R.I.W., Hrmova, M., Fontaine, F., Imberty, A. and Fincher, G.B. (2001) Binding interactions between barley thaumatin-like proteins and (1,3)-β-D-glucans – Kinetics, specificity, structural analysis and biological implications. European Journal of Biochemistry 268, 4190–4199.
Peng, J. and Harberd, N.P. (2002) The role of GA-mediated signalling in the control of seed germination. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5, 376–381.
Petruzzelli, L., Kunz, C., Waldvogel, R., Meins, F. and Leubner-Metzger, G. (1999) Distinct ethylene- and tissue-specific regulation of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases during pea seed germination. Planta 209, 195–201.
Petruzzelli, L., Coraggio, I. and Leubner-Metzger, G. (2000) Ethylene promotes ethylene biosynthesis during pea seed germination by positive feedback regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Planta 211, 144–149.
Phillips, J., Artsaenko, O., Fiedler, U., Horstmann, C., Mock, H.P., Müntz, K. and Conrad, U. (1997) Seed-specific immunomodulation of abscisic acid activity induces a developmental switch. EMBO Journal 16, 4489–4496.
Ren, C.W. and Kermode, A.R. (2000) An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds. Plant Physiology 124, 231–242.
Rezzonico, E., Flury, N., Meins, F. and Beffa, R. (1998) Transcriptional down-regulation by abscisic acid of pathogenesis-related β-1,3-glucanase genes in tobacco cell cultures. Plant Physiology 117, 585–592.
Rinne, P.L.H., Kaikuranta, P.M. and van der Schoot, C. (2001) The shoot apical meristem restores its symplasmic organization during chilling-induced release from dormancy. The Plant Journal 26, 249–264.
Scherp, P., Grotha, R. and Kutschera, U. (2001) Occurrence and phylogenetic significance of cytokinesis-related callose in green algae, bryophytes, ferns and seed plants. Plant Cell Reports 20, 143–149.
Schmid, M., Simpson, D. and Gietl, C. (1999) Programmed cell death in castor bean endosperm is associated with the accumulation and release of a cysteine endopeptidase from ricinosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 14159–14164.
Schopfer, P. (2001) Hydroxyl radical-induced cell-wall loosening in vitro and in vivo: implications for the control of elongation growth. The Plant Journal 28, 679–688.
Schopfer, P. and Plachy, C. (1984) Control of seed germination by abscisic acid. II. Effect on embryo water uptake in Brassica napus L. Plant Physiology 76, 155–160.
Schopfer, P. and Plachy, C. (1993) Photoinhibition of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed germination – Control of growth potential by cell-wall yielding in the embryo. Plant, Cell and Environment 16, 223–229.
Schopfer, P., Plachy, C. and Frahry, G. (2001) Release of reactive oxygen intermediates (superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and peroxidase in germinating radish seeds controlled by light, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. Plant Physiology 125, 1591–1602.
Seetharaman, K., Whitehead, E., Keller, N.P., Waniska, R.D. and Rooney, L.W. (1997) In vitro activity of Sorghum seed antifungal proteins against grain mold pathogens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45, 3666–3671.
Simmons, C.R. (1994) The physiology and molecular biology of plant 1,3-β-D-glucanases and 1,3;1,4-β-D-glucanases. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 13, 325–387.
Sivaguru, M., Fujiwara, T., Samaj, J., Baluska, F., Yang, Z., Osawa, H., Maeda, T., Mori, T., Volkmann, D. and Matsumoto, H. (2000) Aluminium-induced 1,3-β-D-glucan inhibits cell-to-cell trafficking of molecules through plasmodesmata. A new mechanism of alluminium toxicity in plants. Plant Physiology 124, 991–1005.
Sova, V.V., Zvyagintseva, T.N., Svetasheva, T.G., Burtseva, Y.V. and Elyakova, L.A. (1997) Comparative characterization of hydrolysis and transglycosylation catalyzed by β-1,3-glucanases from various sources. Biochemistry (Moscow) 62, 1113–1118.
Sreenivasulu, N., Altschmied, L., Panitz, R., Hahnel, U., Michalek, W., Weschke, W. and Wobus, U. (2002) Identification of genes specifically expressed in maternal and filial tissues of barley caryopses: A cDNA array analysis. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 266, 758–767.
Still, D.W. and Bradford, K.J. (1997) Endo-β-mannanase activity from individual tomato endosperm caps and radicle tips in relation to germination rates. Plant Physiology 113, 21–29.
Suzuki, M., Miyamoto, R., Hattori, T., Nakamura, K. and Asahi, T. (1995) Differential regulation of the expression in transgenic tobacco of the gene for β-glucuronidase under the control of the 5'-upstream regions of two catalase genes from castor bean. Plant and Cell Physiology 36, 273–279.
Toorop, P.E., Bewley, J.D. and Hilhorst, H.W.M. (1996) Endo-β-mannanase isoforms are present in the endosperm and embryo of tomato seeds, but are not essentially linked to the completion of germination. Planta 200, 153–158.
Toorop, P.E., van Aelst, A.C. and Hilhorst, H.W.M. (1998) Endosperm cap weakening and endo-β-mannanase activity during priming of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) seeds are initiated upon crossing a threshold water potential. Seed Science Research 8, 483–491.
Toorop, P.E., van Aelst, A.C. and Hilhorst, H.W.M. (2000) The second step of the biphasic endosperm cap weakening that mediates tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seed germination is under control of ABA. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 1371–1379.
Toyomasu, T., Kawaide, H., Mitsuhashi, W., Inoue, Y. and Kamiya, Y. (1998) Phytochrome regulates gibberellin biosynthesis during germination of photoblastic lettuce seeds. Plant Physiology 118, 1517–1523.
Visser, K., Vissers, A.P.A., Cagirgan, M.I., Kijne, J.W. and Wang, M. (1996) Rapid germination of a barley mutant is correlated with a rapid turnover of abscisic acid outside the embryo. Plant Physiology 111, 1127–1133.
Vögeli-Lange, R., Fründt, C., Hart, C.M., Beffa, R., Nagy, F. and Meins, F. (1994) Evidence for a role of β-1,3-glucanase in dicot seed germination. The Plant Journal 5, 273–278.
Watkins, J.T., Cantliffe, D.J., Huber, D.J. and Nell, T.A. (1985) Gibberellic acid stimulated degradation of endosperm in pepper. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 110, 61–65.
Welbaum, G.E., Bradford, K.J., Yim, K.-O., Booth, D.T. and Oluoch, M.O. (1998) Biophysical, physiological and biochemical processes regulating seed germination. Seed Science Research 8, 161–172.
Wittich, P.E. and Graven, P. (1998) Callose deposition and breakdown, followed by phytomelan synthesis in the seed coat of Gasteria verrucosa (Mill.) H. Duval. Protoplasma 201, 221–230.
Worrall, D., Hird, D.L., Hodge, R., Paul, W., Draper, J. and Scott, R. (1992) Premature dissolution of the microsporocyte callose wall causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco. The Plant Cell 4, 759–771.
Wu, C.-T. and Bradford, K.J. (2002) Class I chitinase is expressed specifically in the micropylar region of. In gib-1. tomato seeds in response to wounding or methyl jasmonate. Abstract, Seventh International Workshop on Seeds, Salamanc Spain.
Wu, C.-T., Leubner-Metzger, G., Meins, F. and Bradford, K.J. (2000) Class I β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase are expressed in the micropylar endosperm of tomato seeds prior to radicle emergence. Plant Physiology 126, 1299–1313.
Yamaguchi, S., Kamiya, Y. and Sun, T.P. (2001) Distinct cell-specific expression patterns of early and late gibberellin biosynthetic genes during Arabidopsis seed germination. The Plant Journal 28, 443–453.
Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Mino, M., Mundy, J. and Chua, N.-H. (1990) Analysis of an ABA-responsive rice gene promoter in transgenic tobacco. Plant Molecular Biology 15, 905–912.
Yim, K.O. and Bradford, K.J. (1998) Callose deposition is responsible for apoplastic semipermeability of the endosperm envelope of muskmelon seeds. Plant Physiology 118, 83–90.
Young, T.E. and Gallie, D.R. (2000) Regulation of programmed cell death in maize endosperm by abscisic acid. Plant Molecular Biology 42, 397–414.