Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Expansin gene expression in Datura ferox L. seeds is regulated by the low-fluence response, but not by the high-irradiance response, of phytochromes

  • R. Alejandra Mella (a1), Maria José Burgin (a1) and Rodolfo A. Sánchez (a1)

Abstract

Expansins are a multi-gene family of proteins involved in changes in cell wall properties. In seeds where the embryo is completely surrounded by the endosperm, dormancy breakage requires weakening of the micropylar endosperm, increased embryo growth potential or both. Cell wall alterations are fundamental components of these processes, and expansins are thought to participate in them. Here, we explore the possible involvement of expansins in the control of germination by phytochrome in Datura ferox L. seeds. Based on the conserved sequences of known expansin genes, corresponding primers were designed to investigate the expression of expansin mRNAs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One expansin mRNA was detected in micropylar endosperm of D. ferox, while two mRNAs were present in the embryo prior to radicle emergence. Expansin transcript content is promoted by red (R) light, both in the micropylar endosperm and the embryo; these effects of R are far-red light (FR) reversible, displaying a typical low-fluence response (LFR) in a way fully consistent with the photocontrol of germination. On the other hand, when the promotion of germination by the LFR is antagonized by exposing the seeds to continuous FR through a high-irradiance response (HIR) or by ABA, the inhibitory treatments do not affect expansin mRNA abundance. The results support the participation of expansins in the promotion of germination by LFR of phytochromes, and suggest that inhibition of germination by HIR or ABA does not include a reduction in the transcription of expansin genes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence Fax: +54 0524 11 45148730 Email: mella@ifeva.edu.ar

References

Hide All
Benech-Arnold, R.L., Sánchez, R.A., Forcella, F., Kruk, B.C. and Ghersa, C.M. (2000) Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil. Field Crops Research 67, 105122.
Bewley, J.D. and Black, M. (1994) Seeds: Physiology of development and germination (2nd edition). New York, Plenum Press.
Bewley, J.D., Burton, R.A., Morohashi, Y. and Fincher, G.B. (1997) Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a (1–4.)-beta-mannan endohydrolase from the seeds of germinated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). Planta 203, 454459.
Botto, J.F., Sánchez, R.A., Whitelam, G.C. and Casal, J.J. (1996) Phytochrome A mediates the promotion of seed germination by very low fluences of light and canopy shade light in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 110, 439444.
Bradford, K.J., Chen, F., Cooley, M.B., Dahal, P., Downie, B., Fukunaga, K.K., Gee, O.H., Gurusinghe, S., Mella, R.A., Nonogaki, H., Wu, C-T. and Yim, K.O. (2000) Gene expression prior to radicle emergence in imbibed tomato seeds. pp. 231251. in Black, M.;Bradford, K.J.;Vazquez-Ramos, J. (Eds) Seed biology: Advances and applications. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Brummell, D.A., Harpster, M.H. and Dunsmuir, P. (1999) Differential expression of expansin gene family members during growth and ripening of tomato fruit. Plant Molecular Biology 39, 161169.
Burgin, M.J., Mella, R.A., Staneloni, R. and Sánchez, R.A. (2000) The transcription of endo-b-mannanase and GA 3b-hydroxylase genes of Datura ferox seeds is regulated by phytochrome. Plant Biology 2000 Abstracts. Annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiology – San Diego, USA.
Caderas, D., Muster, M., Vogler, H., Mandel, T., Rose, J.K.C., McQueen-Mason, S. and Kuhlemeier, C. (2000) Limited correlation between expansin gene expression and elongation growth rate. Plant Physiology 123, 13991413.
Carpita, N.C., Ross, C.W. and Nabors, M.W. (1979a) The influence of plant growth regulators on the growth of the embryonic axes of red- and far-red- treated lettuce seeds. Planta 145, 511516.
Carpita, N.C., Nabors, M.W., Ross, C.W. and Petretic, N.L. (1979b) The growth physics and water relations of red light induced germination in lettuce seeds. III. Changes in the osmotic and pressure potential in the embryonic axes of red and far-red treated seeds. Planta 144, 217224.
Casal, J.J. (2002) Environmental cues affecting development. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5, 3742.
Casal, J.J. and Sánchez, R.A. (1998) Phytochromes and seed germination. Seed Science Research 8, 317329.
Casal, J.J., Sánchez, R.A. Di, Benedetto, A. and de Miguel, L.C. (1991) Light promotion of seed germination in Datura ferox is mediated by a highly stable pool of phytochrome. Photochemistry and Photobiology 53, 249254.
Casal, J.J., Sánchez, R.A. and Botto, J.F. (1998) Modes of action of phytochromes. Journal of Experimental Botany 49, 127138.
Chen, F. and Bradford, K.J. (2000) Expression of an expansin is associated with endosperm weakening during tomato seed germination. Plant Physiology 124, 12651274.
Chen, F., Dahal, P. and Bradford, K.J. (2001) Two tomato expansin genes show divergent expression and localization in embryos during seed development and germination. Plant Physiology 127, 928936.
Cho, H.T. and Kende, H. (1997) Expression of expansin genes is correlated with growth in deepwater rice. Plant Cell 9, 16611671.
Corpet, F. (1988) Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucleic Acids Research 16, 1088110890.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1999) Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 50, 391417.
Cosgrove, D.J. (2000) Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins. Nature 407, 321326.
Dahal, P., Nevins, D.J. and Bradford, K.J. (1997) Relationship of endo-β-mannanase activity and cell wall hydrolysis in tomato endosperm to germination rates. Plant Physiology 113, 12431252.
de Miguel, L. and Sánchez, R.A. (1992) Phytochrome-induced germination, endosperm softening and embryo growth potential in Datura ferox seeds: Sensitivity to low water potential and time to escape to FR reversal. Journal of Experimental Botany 43, 969974.
de Miguel, L., Iglesias, L. and Sánchez, R.A. (1999) ABA inhibition of phytochrome-induced germination in Datura ferox L. seeds. Abstracts of the IV International Workshop on Seed Biology, January 1999, Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico Abstract 3:19.
de Miguel, L., Burgin, M.J., Casal, J.J. and Sánchez, R.A. (2000) Antagonistic action of low-fluence and high-irradiance modes of response of phytochrome on germination and β-mannanase activity in Datura ferox seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 11271133.
Halford, W.P. (1999) The essential prerequisites for quantitative RT-PCR. Nature Biotechnology, 17, 835.
Hartmann, K.M. (1966) A general hypothesis to interpret “high energy phenomena” of photomorphogenesis on the basis of phytocrome. Photochemistry and Photobiology 5, 349366.
Hennig, L., Stoddart, W.M., Dieterle, M., Whitelam, G.C. and Schäfer, E. (2002) Phytochrome E controls light-induced germination of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 128, 194200.
Keller, E. and Cosgrove, D.J. (1995) Expansins in growing tomato leaves. Plant Journal 8, 795802.
McQueen-Mason, S.J. and Cosgrove, D.J. (1995) Expansin mode of action on cell walls: analysis of wall hydrolysis, stress relaxation and binding. Plant Physiology 107, 87100.
Mella, R.A., Maldonado, S. and Sánchez, R.A. (1995) Phytochrome-induced structural changes and protein degradation prior to radicle protrusion in Datura ferox seeds. Canadian Journal of Botany 73, 13711378.
Nonogaki, H., Gee, O.H. and Bradford, K.J. (2000) A germination specific endo-β-mannanase gene is expressed in the micropylar endosperm cap of tomato seeds. Plant Physiology 123, 12351245.
Psaras, G., Georghiou, K. and Mitrakos, K. (1981) Red-light induced endosperm preparation for radicle protrusion of lettuce embryos. Botanical Gazette 142, 1318.
Rose, J.K.C., Lee, H.H. and Bennett, A.B. (1997) Expression of a divergent expansin gene is fruit-specific and ripening-regulated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 59555960.
Sánchez, R.A. and de Miguel, L.C. (1985) The effect of red light, ABA and K+ on the growth of Datura ferox embryos and their relations with photocontrol of germination. Botanical Gazette 146, 472476.
Sánchez, R.A. and de Miguel, L.C. (1997) Phytochrome promotion of mannan-degrading enzyme activities in the micropylar endosperm of Datura ferox seeds requires the presence of the embryo and gibberellin synthesis. Seed Science Research 7, 2733.
Sánchez, R.A., Sunell, L., Labavitch, J.M. and Bonner, B.A. (1990) Changes in the endosperm cell walls of two Datura species before radicle protrusion. Plant Physiology 93, 8997.
Shcherban, T.Y., Shi, J., Durachko, D.M., Guiltnan, M.J., McQueen-Mason, S.J., Shieh, M. and Cosgrove, D.J. (1995) Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of expansins: a highly conserved, multigene family of proteins that mediate cell wall extension in plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92, 92459249.
Shichijo, C., Katada, K., Tanaka, O. and Hashimoto, T. (2001) Phytochrome A-mediated inhibition of seed germination in tomato. Planta 213, 764769.
Shinomura, T., Nagatani, A., Hanzawa, H., Kubota, M., Watanabe, M. and Furuya, M. (1996) Action spectra for phytochrome A- and phytochrome B-specific photoinduction of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93, 81298133.
Shinomura, T., Uchida, K. and Furuya, M. (2000) Elementary processes of photoperception by phytochrome A for high-irradiance response of hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 122, 147156.
Toorop, P.E., van Aelst, A.C. and Hilhorst, H.W.M. (2000) The second step of the biphasic endosperm cap weakening that mediates tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seed germination is under the control of ABA. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 13711379.
Toyomasu, T., Tsuji, H., Yamane, H., Nakayama, M., Yamaguchi, I., Murofushi, N., Takahashi, N. and Inoue, Y. (1993) Light effects on endogenous levels of gibberellins in photoblastic lettuce seeds. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 12, 8590.
Toyomasu, T., Kawaide, H., Mitsuhashi, W., Inoue, Y. and Kamiya, Y. (1998) Phytochrome regulates gibberellin biosynthesis during germination of photoblastic lettuce seeds. Plant Physiology 118, 15171523.
Wu, Y.J., Meeley, R.B. and Cosgrove, D.J. (2001) Analysis and expression of the α-expansin and β-expansin gene families in maize. Plant Physiology 126, 222232.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Expansin gene expression in Datura ferox L. seeds is regulated by the low-fluence response, but not by the high-irradiance response, of phytochromes

  • R. Alejandra Mella (a1), Maria José Burgin (a1) and Rodolfo A. Sánchez (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.