Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dormancy, germination requirements and storage behaviour of seeds of Convolvulaceae (Solanales) and evolutionary considerations

  • K.M.G. Gehan Jayasuriya (a1), Jerry M. Baskin (a1) and Carol C. Baskin (a1) (a2)

Abstract

Convolvulaceae is the only family in the asterid clade with species that produce physically dormant seeds, and most studies on germination in this family have focused on scarified seeds. However, no study has been done on the taxonomic/evolutionary pattern of seed dormancy in Convolvulaceae. We determined the moisture content of non-treated seeds and water uptake and germination percentages for non-treated and manually scarified seeds of 46 species in 11 of the 12 tribes in this family. Germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light/dark and in the dark. The effect of drying and storage at low temperatures was tested on seeds of Erycibe henryi and Maripa panamensis, the only species with high initial moisture content. Non-treated fresh seeds of Bonamia menziesii, M. panamensis and E. henryi imbibed water, whereas those of the other 43 species did not. Manually scarified seeds of all these 43 species took up large amounts of water. Therefore, seeds of 43 of the 46 species are physically dormant, and three are non-dormant. Seeds of all 46 species germinated after imbibition, except those of Cuscuta europaea, which are reported to have combinational dormancy. M. panamensis and E. henryi seeds are recalcitrant and those of the other 44 species orthodox. In Convolvulaceae, basal tribes or tribes derived from basal tribes contain species with non-dormant recalcitrant, physically dormant orthodox and combinationally dormant orthodox seeds. Physical dormancy of seeds in this family possibly evolved from a non-dormant recalcitrant seed-producing ancestor closely related to Erycibeae.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence Email: ccbask0@uky.edu

References

Hide All
APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) (1998) An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85, 531553.
APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) (2003) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141, 399436.
Austin, D.F. (1973) The America Erycibeae (Convolvulaceae): Maripa, Dicranostyles, and Lysiostyles I. Systematics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 60, 306412.
Austin, D.F. (1998) Parallel and convergent evolution in the Convolvulaceae. pp. 201234in Mathiews, P.; Sivadasan, M. (Eds) Biodiversity and taxonomy of tropical flowering plants. Calicut, India, Mentor Books.
Azania, A.A.P.M., Azania, C.A.M., Pavani, M.C.M.D. and Cunha, M.C.S. (2003) Metodos de superacao de dormencia em sementes de Ipomoea e Merremia. Planta Daninha 21, 203209.
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (1998) Seeds: ecology, biogeography and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, Academic Press.
Baskin, C.C., Thompson, K. and Baskin, J.M. (2006) Mistakes in germination ecology and how to avoid them. Seed Science Research 16, 165168.
Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C. and Li, X. (2000) Taxonomy, anatomy and evolution of physical dormancy in seeds. Plant Species Biology 15, 139152.
Bentham, G. and Hooker, J.D. (1876) Genera plantarum, ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata. Vol. 2. London, Reeve and Co.
Benvenuti, S., Dinelli, G., Bonetti, A. and Catizone, P. (2005) Germination ecology, emergence and host detection in Cuscuta campestris. Weed Research 45, 270278.
Berjak, P. and Pammenter, N.W. (2008) From Avicennia to Zizania: seed recalcitrance in perspective. Annals of Botany 101, 213228.
Bessey, C.E. (1915) The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 2, 109164.
Bremer, B., Bremer, K., Heidari, N., Erixon, P., Olmstead, R.G., Anderberg, A.A., Kallersjo, M. and Barkhordarian, E. (2002) Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24, 274301.
Brown, E.O. and Porter, R.H. (1942) The viability and germination of seeds of Convolvulvus arvensis L. and other perennial weeds. Iowa Agricultural Experimental Station Research Bulletin 294, 474504.
Chandler, J.M., Munson, R.L. and Vaughan, C.E. (1977) Purple moonflower: emergence, growth and reproduction. Weed Science 25, 163167.
Cronquist, A. (1968) The evolution and classification of flowering plants. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
Cronquist, A. (1988) The evolution and classification of flowering plants (2nd edition). New York, The New York Botanical Garden.
Crowley, R.H. and Buchanan, G.A. (1980) Response of Ipomoea spp. and smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia) to temperature and osmotic stresses. Weed Science 28, 7682.
Dahlgren, G. (1991) Steps towards a natural system of the dicotyledons: embryological characters. Aliso 13, 107165.
Daws, M.I., Garwood, N.C. and Pritchard, H.W. (2005) Traits of recalcitrant seeds in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama: some ecological implications. Functional Ecology 19, 874885.
Daws, M.I., Garwood, N.C. and Pritchard, H.W. (2006) Prediction of desiccation sensitivity in seeds of woody species: a probabilistic model based on two seed traits and 104 species. Annals of Botany 97, 667674.
de Candolle, A. (1845) Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. Part 9. Paris, Fortin, Masson & Co.
Degener, O. (1932) Flora Hawaiiensis, fam. 307. Perispermum Published privately, 2 pp. Rep., 1946.
de Jussieu, A.L. (1789) Genera plantarum, secundum ordines naturals disposita. Paris, Theophilum Barrois.
Dickie, J.B. and Pritchard, H.W. (2002) Systematic and evolutionary aspects of desiccation tolerance in seeds. pp. 239259in Black, M.; Pritchard, H.W. (Eds) Desiccation and survival in plants: drying without dying. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Eastin, E.F. (1983) Smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia) germination as influenced by scarification, temperature and seeding depth. Weed Science 31, 727729.
Elmore, C.D., Hurst, H.R. and Austin, D.F. (1990) Biology and control of morningglories (Ipomoea spp.). Reviews of Weed Science 5, 83114.
Farnsworth, E. (2000) The ecology and physiology of viviparous and recalcitrant seeds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31, 107138.
Finch-Savage, W.E. and Leubner-Metzger, G. (2006) Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytologist 171, 501523.
Gaertner, E.E. (1950) Studies of seed germination, seed identification, and host relationships in dodders, Cuscuta spp. Memoirs of the Cornell University Agricutural Experiment Station 294, 356.
Gaertner, E.E. (1956) Dormancy in the seed of Cuscuta europea. Ecology 37, 389.
Genova, E., Komistska, G. and Beeva, Y. (1997) Study on the germination of Atropa bella-donna L. seeds. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology 23, 6166.
Goldberg, A. (1986) Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of dicotyledons. Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution Press.
Gonzalez-Martin, M. (1998) Germinacion de especies endemicas Canarias del genero Convolvulus L. en gran Canaria (islas Canarias). Investigacion Agrarian Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales 13, 307318.
Grappin, P., Bouinot, D., Sotta, B., Miginiac, E. and Jullien, M. (2000) Control of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: post-imbibition abscisic acid synthesis imposes dormancy maintenance. Planta 210, 279285.
Gupta, V. (2000) Structural changes in seed coat morphology during dormancy breaking in some medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science 22–23, 672673.
Hardcastle, W.S. (1978) Influence of temperature and acid scarification duration on scarlet morningglory (Ipomoea coccinea) seed germination. Weed Science 26, 261263.
Horak, M.J. and Wax, L.M. (1991) Germination and seedling development of bigroot morningglory (Ipomoea pandurata). Weed Science 39, 390396.
Hutchinson, J.F.L.S. (1926) The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny. Volume I. Dicotyledons (1st edition). London, Macmillan.
Hutchison, J.M. and Ashton, F.M. (1980) Germination of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris). Weed Science 28, 330333.
Jayasuriya, K.M.G.G (2008) Comparative biology of seed dormancy-break and germination in Convolvulaceae (Asterids, Solanales). PhD thesis, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
Jayasuriya, K.M.G.G., Baskin, J.M., Geneve, R.L. and Baskin, C.C. (2007) Morphology and anatomy of physical dormancy in Ipomoea lacunosa: identification of the water gap in seeds of Convolvulaceae (Solanales). Annals of Botany 100, 1321.
Jayasuriya, K.M.G.G., Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (2008) Cycling of sensitivity to physical dormancy-break in seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) and ecological significance. Annals of Botany 101, 341352.
Jayasuriya, K.M.G.G., Baskin, J.M., Geneve, R.L., Baskin, C.C. and Chien, C.T. (2008) Physical dormancy in seeds of the holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta australis (Convolvulaceae, Cuscuteae): dormancy-breaking requirements, anatomy of the water gap and sensitivity cycling. Annals of Botany 102, 3948.
Ko, J.M., Park, H.J., Min, B.M. and Cha, H.C. (2004) Effects of various pretreatments on seed germination of Calystegia soldanella (Convolvulaceae), a coastal sand dune plant. Journal of Plant Biology 47, 396400.
Koller, D. and Cohen, D. (1959) Germination-regulating mechanisms in some desert seeds VI. Convolvulus lanatus Vahl., Convolvulus negevensis Zoh. and Convolvulus secundus Desr. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel 7D, 180195.
Kondo, T., Takahashi, T. and Shimomura, T. (2000) Effects of various treatments on breaking hard seed dormancy of Calystegia soldanella (L.) Roem. et Schult. Journal of Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 26, 2835.
Kondo, T., Takahashi, T. and Shimomura, T. (2001) Effects of temperature, light, burial and storage on germination of Calystegia soldanella seeds released from dormancy. Journal of Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 26, 320326.
Kondo, T., Saki, A. and Sasaki, S. (2002) Effect of sowing dates and burial depths on seedling emergence and survival of Calystegia soldanella Roem. et Schult. and Lathyrus japonica Willd. Journal of Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 28, 330341.
Lyshede, O.B. (1984) Seed structure and germination in Cuscuta pedicellata with some notes on C. campestris. Nordic Journal of Botany 4, 669674.
Lyshede, O.B. (1992) Studies on mature seeds of Cuscuta pedicellata and C. campestris by electron microscopy. Annals of Botany 69, 365371.
Mabberley, D.J. (1997) The plant book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants (2nd edition). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Meulebrouck, K., Ameloot, E., Van Assche, J.A., Verheyen, K., Hermy, M. and Baskin, C.C. (2008) Germination ecology of the holoparasite Cuscuta epithymum. Seed Science Research 18, 2534.
Misra, B.N. (1963) Germination of seeds of Ipomoea crassicaulis (Benth.) Robinson. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 42, 358366.
Ng, F.S.P. (1991) Manual of forest fruits, seeds and seedlings. Vol. 1. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
Norsworthy, J.K. and Oliveira, M.J. (2007) Role of light quality and temperature on pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa) germination with after-ripening. Weed Science 55, 111118.
Ogunwenmo, K.O. (2006) Variation in fruit and seed morphology, germination and seedling behavior of some taxa of Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae). Feddes Repertorium 117, 207216.
Pammenter, N.W. and Berjak, P. (2000 a) Evolutionary and ecological aspects of recalcitrant seed biology. Seed Science Research 10, 301306.
Pammenter, N.W. and Berjak, P. (2000 b) Some thoughts on the evolution and ecology of recalcitrant seeds. Plant Species Biology 15, 153156.
Pichon, M. (1947) Le genre Humbertia. Notulae Systematicae 13, 1325.
Pinto, L.V.A., Da Silva, E.A.A., Davide, A.C., De Jesus, V.A.M., Toorop, P.E. and Hilhorst, H.W.M. (2007) Mechanism and control of Solanum lycocarpum seed germination. Annals of Botany 100, 11751187.
Reisman-Berman, O., Kigel, J. and Rubin, B. (1991) Dormancy patterns in buried seeds of Datura ferox and D. stramonium. Canadian Journal of Botany 69, 173179.
Revell, C.K., Taylor, G.B. and Cocks, P.S. (1999) Effect of length of growing season on development of hard seeds in yellow serradella and their subsequent softening at various depths of burial. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 12111223.
Saharan, P., Kasera, P.K. and Chawan, D.D. (2001) Seed polymorphism and germination behavior of shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides). Annals of Arid Zone 40, 9799.
Sharma, S.S. and Sen, D.N. (1975) Effect of light on seed germination and seedling growth of Merremia species. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 10, 265269.
Spier, L.P. and Snyder, J.R. (1998) Effect of wet and dry season fires on Jacquemontia curtisii, a South Florida pine forest endemic. Natural Areas Journal 18, 350357.
Staples, G.W., Wiersema, J.H., Chambers, N.A. and Austin, D.F. (2005) The restoration of Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq. (Convolvulaceae). Taxon 54, 10751079.
Stefanovic, S., Krueger, L. and Olmstead, R.G. (2002) Monophyly of the Convolvulaceae and circumscription of their major lineages based on DNA sequences of multiple chloroplast loci. American Journal of Botany 89, 15101522.
Stefanovic, S., Austin, D.F. and Olmstead, G. (2003) Classification of Convolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany 28, 791806.
Takhtajan, A. (1980) Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Botanical Review 46, 225359.
Takhtajan, A. (1997) Diversity and classification of flowering plants. New York, Columbia University Press.
Tamak, J.C., Narwal, S.S., Singh, L. and Ram, M. (1994) Effect of aqueous extracts of rice stubbles and straw+stubbles on the germination and seedling growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Avena ludoviciana and Phalaris minor. Crop Research 8, 186189.
Taylor, G.B. (1981) Effect of constant temperature treatments followed by fluctuating temperatures on the softening of hard seeds of Trifolium subterraneum L. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 8, 547558.
Taylor, G.B. (2005) Hardseedness in Mediterranean annual pasture legumes in Australia: a review. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56, 645661.
Taylor, G.B. and Revell, C.K. (1999) Effect of pod burial, light, and temperature on seed softening in yellow serradella. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 12031209.
Thorne, R.F. (1992) Classification and geography of flowering plants. Botanical Review 58, 225348.
Thorne, R.F. (2000) The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae. Botanical Review 66, 441647.
Thorne, R.F. (2007) An updated classification of the class Magnoliopsida (‘Angiospermae’). Botanical Review 73, 67182.
Thulen, R.J. and Keeley, P.E. (1983) Germination, growth and seed production of Ipomoea hederacea when planted at monthly intervals. Weed Science 31, 837840.
Tingey, D.C. and Allred, K.R. (1961) Breaking dormancy in seeds of Cuscuta approximata. Weeds 9, 429436.
Todd, B.L., Coons, J.M. and Owen, H.R. (2002) Scarification technique affects germination of Stylisma pickeringii (Patterson bindweed), an Illinois endangered plant. American Midland Naturalist 148, 190192.
Van Assche, J.A., Debucquoy, L.A. and Rommens, A.F. (2003) Seasonal cycles in the germination capacity of buried seeds of some Leguminosae (Fabaceae). New Phytologist 158, 315323.
Von Teichman, I. and Van Wyk, A.E. (1994) Structural aspects and trends in the evolution of recalcitrant seeds in dicotyledons. Seed Science Research 4, 225239.
Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Sohmer, S.H. (1999) Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Vol. I, (revised edition). Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press.
Weaver, S.E. and Riley, W.R. (1982) The biology of Canadian weeds. 53. Convolvulvus arvensis. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 62, 461472.
Zhou, J., Deckard, E.L. and Ahrens, W.H. (2005) Factors affecting germination of hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) seeds. Weed Science 53, 4145.
Zhou, J., Tao, B., Deckard, E.L. and Messersmith, C.G. (2006) Green huckleberry (Solanum melanocerasium) germination, seed survival, and response to herbicides. Weed Science 54, 478483.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Dormancy, germination requirements and storage behaviour of seeds of Convolvulaceae (Solanales) and evolutionary considerations

  • K.M.G. Gehan Jayasuriya (a1), Jerry M. Baskin (a1) and Carol C. Baskin (a1) (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.