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This paper analyses the concept of velocity isotropy for Parallel Mechanisms with Actuation Redundancy (PMAR). The limits of classical indices based on the Jacobean matrix condition number are shown. It is proposed to use either the largest ellipsoid included in the operational polytop, or the operational polytop itself, as better representations of a PMAR capabilities. The polytop is studied because it is actually the accurate representation of a machine capability, while the largest ellipsoid remains similar to the classical tool roboticists are dealing with for decades. Velocity performance indices are proposed, and the ways to compute them efficiently are given.
We describe the design and implementation of RSTATION, an object-oriented, modular robot simulator with hierarchical analysis capabilities. Modularity is achieved via the features of design encapsulation and enables grouping a set of
interconnected components into a single component and dividing the robot system into several sets of subordinate modules recursively. By careful construction of the data types and classes, RSTATION allows for hierarchical simulation of the kinematics, and the dynamics at three levels: considering only main links (high-level), using simplified models including dynamic properties of transmission elements (intermediate level), and taking into account the detailed kinematics and dynamics of transmission elements (low-level). Submodules can be set to different resolution during a single simulation. The data types and classes also exploit a recent set of coordinate invariant robot analysis algorithms based on modern
screw theory. Central to the low-level dynamic analysis capability is an algorithm for systematically extracting the constraint equations for general gearing systems. The various features of RSTATION are illustrated with a detailed case study of a commercial industrial robot.
Although numerous sophisticated nonlinear control algorithms exist in literature, it is still state of the art to use simple linear joint controllers in industrial robotic systems. Most nonlinear concepts are based on a more or less accurate inverse model of the robot. In this paper a forward-model-based control system, the so-called Model Following Control (MFC), for robot manipulators is presented. Its theoretical basics and its
concept are explained. The quality and the applicability of the MFC control concept has been analyzed in many experiments. The MFC system is compared with classical linear controllers and nonlinear feedforward controllers with respect to robustness. Qualitative as well as
quantitative results are presented and discussed.
This work proposes control structures that efficiently combine force control with vision servo control of robot manipulators. Impedance controllers are
considered which are based both on visual servoing and on physical or fictitious force feedback, the force and visual information being combined in the image space. Force and visual servo controllers included in extended hybrid control structures are also considered.
The combination of both force and vision based control allows the tasks range of the robot to be extended to partially structured environments. The proposed controllers, implemented on an industrial SCARA-type robot, are tested in tasks involving physical and virtual contact with the environment.
An important concept proposed in the early stage of robot path planning field is the shrinking of the robot to a point and meanwhile expanding of the obstacles in the workspace as a set of new obstacles. The resulting grown obstacles are called the Configuration Space (Cspace) obstacles. The find-path problem is then transformed into that
of finding a collision free path for a point robot among the Cspace obstacles. However, the research experiences obtained so far have shown that the calculation of the Cspace obstacles
is very hard work when the following situations occur: 1. both the robot and obstacles are not polygons and 2. the robot is allowed to rotate. This situation is even worse when the robot and obstacles are three dimensional (3D) objects with various shapes. Obviously a direct path planning approach without the calculation of the Cspace obstacles is strongly needed. This paper presents such a new real-time robot path planning approach which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first one in the robotic community. The fundamental ideas are the utilization of inequality and optimization technique. Simulation results have been presented to show its merits.
Instantaneous kinematics and singularity analysis of a class of three-legged, 6-DOF parallel manipulators are addressed in this paper. A generic method of derivation of reciprocal screw and consequently, the instantaneous kinematics model is presented. The advantage of this formulation is that the instantaneous kinematics model possesses well-defined geometric meaning and algebraic structure. Singularity analysis is performed under three categories, namely forward, inverse and combined singularities. A new concept of Passive Joint Plane is introduced to correlate the physical structure of the manipulator and these geometric conditions. In the inverse kinematic analysis, a new approach is introduced. At each leg end point a characteristic parallel- epiped is defined whose sides are the linear velocity components from three main joints of the leg. An inverse singularity occurs when the volume of this parallelepiped becomes zero. Examples are demonstrated using RRRS and RPRS-type parallel manipulators.
This paper presents a method of autocalibrating a stereo system using the full parameterization of the fundamental matrix. The technique is an improvement of classical autocalibration methods that use corresponding points and it is aimed to reduce the number of processes required to achieve a satisfactory calibration. An analysis of the matching points used in the calibration process is carried out in order to select them based upon their quality or reliability. Using this technique, a significant reduction of the convergence errors in the calibration process is obtained.
This paper describes precision enhancement of an optical three-axis tactile sensor capable of detecting both normal force and tangential force. The sensor's single cell consists of a columnar feeler and 2-by-2 conical feelers. We have derived equations to precisely estimate the three-axis force from the area-sum and area-difference of the conical feelers' contact areas by taking into account wrench-length shrinkage caused by a vertical force. To evaluate the equations and determine constants included in the equations, we performed a series of calibration experiments using a manipulator-mounted tactile sensor and a combined load-testing machine. Subsequently. to evaluate the tactile sensor's practicality. it was mounted on the end of a robotic manipulator which rubbed flat specimens such as brass plates with step-heights of δ=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mm and a brass plate with no step-height. We showed from the experimental data that the optical three-axis tactile sensor can detect not only the step-heights but also the distribution of the coefficient of friction, and that the sensor can detect fine plate inclination with accuracy to about ±0.4°.
Enhancing graphical objects whose behaviors are governed by the laws of physics is an important requirement in modeling virtual physical environments. In such environments, the user can interact with graphical objects and is able to either feel the simulated reaction forces through a physical computer interface such as a force feedback mouse or through such interactions, objects behave in a natural way. One of the key requirements for such interaction is determination of the type of contact between the user
controlled object and the objects representing the environment. This paper presents an approach for reconstructing the contact configuration between two objects. This is accomplished through usage of the time history of the motion of the approaching objects for inverse trajectory mapping of polygonal representation. In the case of deformable objects
and through usage of mass-spring-damper system this paper also presents a special global filter that can map the local deformation of an object to the adjacent vertices of polygonal mesh. In addition to offering a fast computational framework, the proposed method also offers more realistic representation of the deformation. The results of this paper are shown through detailed examples and comparison analysis using different computational platforms.
The experimental evidence supports the validity of the principle of superposition for multi-finger prehension in humans. Forces and moments of individual digits are defined by two independent commands: “Grasp the object stronger/weaker to prevent slipping” and “Maintain the rotational equilibrium of the object”. The effects of the two commands are summed up.
This paper describes the development of a system that is capable of tiling mosaics using a robot according to requirements of the individual customer. The art of mosaic, in one form or another, has been practiced manually for thousands of years. Modern developments in materials and production techniques could be found as evidence that mosaic is very much alive in the new millennium. It is very costly and also difficult to find skilful people to tile mosaic. Therefore a computer-assisted robotic system has been constructed and applied. To activate the system a particular algorithm has been developed and successfully applied on an available SCARA robot.