Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Collision analysis and safety evaluation using a collision model for the frontal robot–human impact

  • Jung-Jun Park (a1), Jae-Bok Song (a2) and Sami Haddadin (a3)

Summary

The safety analysis of human–robot collisions has recently drawn significant attention, as robots are increasingly used in human environments. In order to understand the potential injury a robot could cause in case of an impact, such incidents should be evaluated before designing a robot arm based on biomechanical safety criteria. In recent literature, such incidents have been investigated mostly by experimental crash-testing. However, experimental methods are expensive, and the design parameters of the robot arm are difficult to change instantly. In order to solve this issue, we propose a novel robot-human collision model consisting of a 6-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system for impact analysis. Since the proposed robot-human consists of a head, neck, chest, and torso, the relative motion among these body parts can be analyzed. In this study, collision analysis of impacts to the head, neck, and chest at various collision speeds are conducted using the proposed collision model. Then, the degree of injury is estimated by using various biomechanical severity indices. The reliability of the proposed collision model is verified by comparing the obtained simulation results with experimental results from literature. Furthermore, the basic requirements for the design of safer robots are determined.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jbsong@korea.ac.kr

References

Hide All
1. Haddadin, S., Albu-Schaffer, A., Frommberger, M., Rossmann, J. and Hirzinger, G., “The DLR Crash Report: Towards a Standard Crash-Testing Protocol for Robot Safety – Part I: Results,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2009) pp. 272–279.
2. Haddadin, S., Albu-Schaffer, A., Frommberger, M., Rossmann, J. and Hirzinger, G., “The DLR Crash Report: Towards a Standard Crash-Testing Protocol for Robot Safety – Part II: Discussions,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2009) pp. 280–287.
3. Park, J. J., Kim, B. S., Song, J. B. and Kim, H. S., “Safe link mechanism based on nonlinear stiffness for collision safety,” Mech. Mach. Theory 43 (10), 13321348 (2008).
4. Bicchi, A. and Tonietti, G., “Fast and soft arm tactics: Dealing with the safety-performance tradeoff in robot arms design and control,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 11 (2), 2233 (2004).
5. Haddadin, S., Albu-Schäffer, A. and Hirzinger, G., “The Role of the Robot Mass and Velocity in Physical Human–Robot Interaction – Part I: Unconstrained Blunt Impacts,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2008) pp. 1331–1338.
6. Haddadin, S., Albu-Schaffer, A. and Hirzinger, G., “The Role of the Robot Mass and Velocity in Physical Human–Robot Interaction – Part II: Constrained Blunt Impacts,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2008) pp. 1339–1345.
7. ISO-10218, Robots for Industrial Environments – Safety Requirements – Part 1: Robot (2006).
8. Yamada, Y., Hirasawa, Y., Huang, S.Y. and Umetani, Y., “Fail-Safe Human/Robot Contact in the Safety Space,” IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (1996) pp. 59–64.
9. Kim, B. S., Song, J. B., and Park, J. J., “A Serial-type Dual Actuator Unit with Planetary Gear Train: Basic Design and Applications,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 15 (1), 108116 (2010).
10. Kulic, D. and Croft, E. A., “Pre collision safety strategies for human robot interaction,” Auton. Robots 22 (2), 149164 (2007).
11. AAAM, The Abbreviated Injury Scale (1990) Revision Update 1998 (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Barrington, IL, 1998).
12. Nahum, A. M.The prediction of Maxillo facial trauma”. Trans Am. Acad. Opth. Otol. 84, 932933 (1976).
13. Hodgson, V. R., “Tolerance of facial bones to impact,” Am. J. Anat. 120, 113122 (1967).
14. Allsop, D. L., Warner, C. Y., Wille, M. G., Schneider, D. C. and Nahum, A. M., “Facial Impact Response - A Comparison of the Hybrid III Dummy and Human Cadaver (SAE Paper No.881719),” Proceedings of the 32th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1988) pp. 781–797.
15. Melvin, J., “Human Tolerance to Impact Conditions as related to Motor Vehicle Design”. SAE J885 APR80. (1980).
16. Schneider, D. C. and Nahum, A. M., “Impact Studied of Facial Bone and Skull,” Proceedings of the 16th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 720965 (1974) 186 pp.
17. Swearingen, J. J., Tolerances of the Human Face to Crash Impact (Federal Aviation Agency, Civil Aeromedical Research Institute, Oklahoma City, USA, 1965).
18. Mertz, H. J., Anthropomorphic test devices. Accidental Injury - Biomechanics and Prevention Chapter 4 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1993).
19. Mertz, H. J. and Patrick, L. M., “Investigation of the Kinematics and Kinetics of Whiplash,” Proceedings of the 11th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 670919 (1967) pp. 267–317.
20. Melvin, J. W., “Response of Human Larynx to Blunt Loading,” Proceedings of the 17th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 730967. (1973).
21. Patrick, L., “Impact Force Deflection of the Human Thorax,” Proceedings of the 25th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 811014 (1981) pp. 471–496.
22. Kroell, C., Scheider, D. and Nahum, A., “Impact Tolerance and Response of the Human Thorax,” Proceedings of 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No.710851 (1971) pp. 84–134.
23. Lau, I., and Viano, D., “Thoracic Impact: A Viscous Tolerance Criterion,” Proceedings of 10th Experimental Safety Vehicle Conference (1985).
24. Khatib, O., “Inertial properties in robotic manipulation: An object-level framework,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 14 (1), 1936 (1995).
25. Kaleps, I. and Whitestone, J., “Hybrid III Geometrical and Inertial Properties,” SAE Paper No.880638 (1988).
26. Lobdell, T. F., “Impact Response of the Human Thorax,” Proceedings of the Symposium Human Impact Response Measurement and Simulation (1973) pp. 201–245.
27. Nyquist, G. W., Cavanaugh, J. M., Goldberg, S. J. and King, A. I., “Facial Impact Tolerance and Response (SAE Paper No.861896),” Proceedings of the 30th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1986) pp. 379–400.
28. Gray, H., Anatomy of the Human Body (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1918).
29. Horsch, J. and Schneider, D., “Biofidelity of the Hybrid III Thorax in High-Velocity Frontal Impact,” SAE Paper No.880718. (1988).
30. FMVS Standards, FMVSS 208 - Occupant Crash Protection (2004).

Keywords

Collision analysis and safety evaluation using a collision model for the frontal robot–human impact

  • Jung-Jun Park (a1), Jae-Bok Song (a2) and Sami Haddadin (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed