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Endocrine disorders

  • Paul E Belchetz (a1)


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Paul E Belchetz, Consultant Physician/Endocrinologist, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK.


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1Belchetz, PE.Endocrinology of the menopause. Practitioner 1990: 234: 491–93.
2Belchetz, PE.Gonadotrophin regulation and clinical applications of GnRH. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 12: 619–40.
3Belchetz, PE, Plant, TM, Nakai, Y et al. Hypophysial responses to continuous and intermittent delivery of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Science 1978; 202: 631–33.
4Casper, RF, Yen, SSC, Wilkes, MM.Menopausal flushes: a neuroendocrine link with pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion. Science 1979; 205: 823–25.
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7Draper, J, Roland, M.Perimenopausal women's views on taking hormone replacement therapy to prevent osteoporosis. Br Med J 1990; 300: 786–88.
8Wallace, WA, Price, VH, Elliot, CA et al. Hormone replacement therapy acceptability to Nottingham post-menopausal women with a risk-factor for osteoporosis. J R Soc Med 1990; 83: 699701.
9Belchetz, PE.Hormone replacement treatment. Deserves wider use. Br Med J 1989; 298: 1467–68.
10Hillner, BE, Hollenberg, JP, Pauker, SG.Postmenopausal estrogens in prevention of osteoporosis. Benefit virtually without risk if cardiovascular effects are considered. Am J Med 1986; 80: 1115–27.
11Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA.Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prev Med 1991; 20: 4763.
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14Robboy, SJ, Bradley, R.Changing trends and prognostic features in endometrial cancer associated with exogenous estrogen therapy. Obstet Gynecol 1979; 54: 269–77.
15Voigt, L, Weiss, NS, Chu, J et al. Progestogen supplementation of exogenous oestrogens and risk of endometrial cancer. Lancet 1991; 338: 274–77.
16Rijpkema, AHM, van der Sanden, AA, Ruijs, AHC.Effects of post-menopausal oestrogen-progestogen replacement therapy on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a review. Maturitas 1990; 12: 259–85.
17Lobo, RA, Effects of hormonal replacement on lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 73: 925–30.
18Mann, RD ed. Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. Camforth: Parthenon, 1992.
19Belchetz, PE. Drug treatment of the menopause. N Engl J Med 1993 (in press).
20Carlson, HE. Gynecomastia In: Morley, JE, Korenman, SG eds. Endocrinology and metabolism in the elderly. Boston: Blackwell, 1992; 293306.
21Belchetz, P. Male hypogonadism. In: Grossman, A ed. Clinical endocrinology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992: 632–53.
22Anderson, DC.Sex hormone-binding globulin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1974; 3: 6996.
23Huggins, C, Hodges, CV.Studies on prostatic cancer. 1. The effects of castration, of estrogens and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res 1941; 1: 293–97.
24Kaisary, AV, Tyrrell, CJ, Peeling, WB, Griffiths, K.Comparison of LHRH analogue (Zoladex) with orchiectomy in patients with metastatic prostatic carcinoma. Br J Urol 1991; 67: 502508.
25Labrie, F, Dupont, A, Belanger, A et al. Combination therapy with flutamide and castration (LHRH agonist or orchiectomy) in advanced prostate cancer: a marked improvement in response and survival. J Steroid Biochem 1985; 23: 833–41.
26Schröder, FH.Hormonal manipulation of prostatic cancer. Br Med J 1991; 303: 1489–90.
27Stoner, E.The clinical effects of a 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, on benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 1992; 147: 12981302.
28Tunbridge, WMG, Evered, DC, Hall, R et al. The spectrum of thyroid disease in a community: the Whickham survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1977; 7: 481–93.
29Tunbridge, WMG, Brewis, M, French, JM et al. Natural history of autoimmune thyroiditis. Br Med J 1981; 282: 258–62.
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32Studer, H.A fresh look at an old thyroid disease: euthyroid and hyperthyroid nodular goitre. J Endocrinol Invest 1982; 5: 5768.
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34Stewart, JC, Vidor, GI, Buttifield, IH et al. Epidemic thyrotoxicosis in northern Tasmania: studies of clinical features and iodine nutrition. Aust NZ J Med 1971; 3: 203–11.
35Barker, DJP, Phillips, DIW.Current incidence of thyrotoxicosis and past prevalence of goitre in 12 British towns. Lancet 1984; ii: 567–70.
36Cavalieri, RR, Rapaport, B.Impaired peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. Am Rev Med 1977; 28: 5765.
37McDevitt, DG.Propranolol in treatment of thyrotoxicosis: a review. Postgrad Med J 1976; 52 (suppl 4): 157–62.
38Melmed, S, Geola, FL, Reed, AW et al. A comparison of methods for assessing thyroid function in non-thyroidal illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982; 54: 300306.
39Slag, MF, Morley, JE, Elson, MK et al. Hypothyroxinemia in critically ill patients as a predictor of high mortality. JAMA 1981; 245: 4345.
40Spratt, DI, Pont, A, Miller, MB et al. Hyperthyroxinemia in patients with acute psychiatric disorders. Am J Med 1982; 73: 4148.
41Lazarus, JH.Endocrine and metabolic effects of lithium. Adv Drug React Ac Pois Rev 1982; 1: 181200.
42Gammage, MD, Franklyn, JA.Amiodarone and the thyroid. Q J Med 1987; 62: 8386.
43Blum, M, Weinberg, U, Shenkman, L et al. Hyperthyroidism after iodinated contrast of material. N Engl J Med 1974; 291: 2425.
44Golding, DN.Hypothyroidism presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms. Ann Rheum Dis 1970; 29: 1014.
45Sachdev, Y, Hall, R.Effusions into body cavities in hypothyroidism. Lancet 1975; i: 564–66.
46Horton, L, Coburn, RJ, England, JM, Himsworth, RL.The haematology of hypothyroidism. Q J Med 1975; 45: 101–24.
47Sawin, CT, Herman, T, Molitch, ME et al. Aging and the thyroid. Decreased requirement for thyroid hormone in older hypothyroid patients. Am J Med 1983; 75: 206209.
48Belchetz, PE. Emergencies in endocrinology. In: Keynes, WM, Fowler, PBS eds. Tutorials in postgraduate medicine. Clinical endocrinology. London: Heinemann, 1984: 603–35.
49Weinberg, AD, Brennan, MD, Gorman, CA et al. Outcome of anesthesia and surgery in hypothyroid patients. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 893–97.
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51O'Doherty, M, Croft, D.Radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis. Nuc Med Commun 1992; 13: 391–93.
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53Morley, JE, Gharib, D. The endocrinology of Alzheimer's disease and late-life depression. In: Morley, JE, Korenman, SG eds. Endocrinology and metabolism in the elderly. Boston: Blackwell, 1992: 111–23.
54Belchetz, PE. Hypopituitarism. In: Belchetz, PE ed. Management of pituitary disease. London: Chapman & Hall, 1984: 103–15.
55Gibbs, DM, Neill, JD.Dopamine levels in hypophysial stalk blood in the rat are sufficient in inhibit prolactin in vivo. Endocrinology 1978; 102: 18951900.
56Deitala, G. Hyperprolactinaemia: causes, biochemical diagnosis and tests of prolactin secretion. In: Grossman, A ed. Clinical endocrinology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992: 123–31.
57Romanoff, LP, Morris, CW, Welch, P et al. The metabolism of cortisol – 4–14C in young and elderly men. I: secretion rate of cortisol and daily excretion of tetrahydrocortisol, alleotetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisone and cortolone (20α and 20β). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1961; 21: 1413–25.
58Rao, RH, Spathis, GS.Intramuscular glucagon as a provocative stimulus for the assessment of pituitary function: growth hormone and cortisol responses. Metabolism 1987; 36: 658–63.
59Orme, SM, Belchetz, PE.Glucagon stimulation – a final visit? J Endocrinol 1990; 127: Abstract 37.
60Stewart, PM, Corrie, J, Seckl, JR et al. A rational approach for assessing the hypothalamo-pituitaryadrenal axis Lancet 1988; i: 1208.
61Russell, RWR, Pennybacker, JB.Craniopharyngioma in the elderly. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1961; 24: 113.
62Belchetz, PE.Clinical recognition of idiopathic hypopituitarism in the geriatric patient. Geriatr Med Today 1987; 6: 2742.
63Belchetz, PE.Postural hypotension and idiopathic hypopituitarism in the elderly. Br Med J 1985; 291: 247–48.
64Orme, SM, Belchetz, PE.Isolated ACTH deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1991; 35: 213–17.
65Belchetz, PE, Davis, JC, Hipkin, LJ et al. Evaluation of glucagon, clonidine and diazepam as stimulatory tests of growth hormone secretion. J Endocrinol 1986; 108: Abstract 314.
66Shibasaki, T, Shizume, K, Nakahara, M et al. Age related changes in plasma growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing factor in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984; 58: 212–14.
67Saloman, F, Cuneo, RC, Hesp, R, Sönksen, PH.The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 17971803.
68Lamberts, SWJ, Valk, NK, Binnerts, A.The use of growth hormone in adults: a changing scene. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf ) 1992; 37: 111–15.
69Rudman, D, Feller, AG, Nagraj, HS et al. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 16.
70Bowers, CY, Newell, DC, Alster, DK. GHRP's – Small GH releasing peptides. Ninth International Congress of Endocrinology, Nice 1992. Symposium 5.2.
71Riggs, BL, Melton, LJ III. Involutional osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1676–86.
72Marcus, R, Snow-Harter, C. Skeletal aging. In: Morley, JE, Korenman, SG eds. Endocrinology and metabolism in the elderly. Boston: Blackwell, 1992: 153–69.
73Cohn, SH, Abesamis, C, Yasamura, S et al. Comparative skeletal mass and radial bone mineral content in black and white women. Metabolism 1977; 26: 171–78.
74Smith, DM, Nance, WE, Kang, KW et al. Genetic factors in determining bone mass. J Clin Invest 1973; 52: 28002808.
75Dawson-Hughes, B, Dallal, GE, Krall, EA. et al. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 878–83.
76Nordin, BEC, Polley, KJ.Metabolic consequences of the menopause. A cross sectional, longitudinal, and interventional study on 557 normal postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 1987; 41 (suppl 1): S159.
77Armbrecht, HJ, Boltz, M, Strong, R et al. Expression of calbindin D decreases with age in intestine and kidney. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 2950–56.
78Ellis, KJ, Cohn, SH.Correlation between skeletal calcium mass and muscle mass in man. J Appl Physiol 1975; 38: 455–60.
79Seeman, E, Melton, LJ III, O'Fallon, WM, Riggs, BL.Risk factors for spinal osteoporosis in men. Am J Med 1983; 75: 977–83.
80Eriksen, EF, Colvard, DS, Berg, NJ et al. Evidence of estrogen receptors in normal human osteoblast cells. Science 1988; 241: 8486.
81Nicolson, GC, Moseley, JM, Sexton, P, Martin, TJ. Characterization of calcitonin receptors and cychie AMP responses in isolated osteoclasts. In: Cohn, DV, Martin, TJ, Meunier, PJ eds. Calcium regulation and bone metabolism. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica: 343–48.
82Stevenson, JC, Abeyasekera, G, Hillyard, CJ et al. Calcitonin and the calcium regulating hormones in postmenopausal women: effects of oestrogens. Lancer 1981; i: 693–95.
83Leichter, I, Margulies, JY, Weinreb, A et al. The relationship between bone density, mineral content and mechanical strength in the femoral neck. Clin Orthop 1982; 163: 272–81.
84Schaadt, O, Bohr, H.Skeletal metabolism. Lancet 1980; ii: 914.
85Lindsay, R, Hart, DM, Forest, C et al. Prevention of spinal osteoporosis in oophorectomized women. Lancet 1980; ii: 1151–54.
86Storm, T, Thamsborg, G, Steiniche, T et al. Effect of intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy on bone mass and fracture rate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 1265–71.
87Watts, NB, Harris, ST, Genant, HK et al. Intermittent cyclical etidronate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 7379.
88Orme, SM, Simpson, M, Stewart, SP et al. Possible synergistic effect of high calcium intake and etidronate in osteoporosis. J Endocrinol 1991; 129: Abstract 137.
89Hedlund, LR, Gallagher, JC.Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride. J Bone Miner Res 1989; 4: 223–25.
90Heath, H III, Hodgson, SF, Kennedy, MA.Primary hyperparathyroidism: incidence, morbidity, and potential economic impact in a community. N Engl J Med 1980; 302: 189–93.
91Palmer, M, Adami, H-O, Bergstrom, R et al. Mortality after surgery for hyperparathyroidism: a followup of 441 patients operated on from 1956 to 1979. Surgery 1987; 102: 17.
92Hamdy, NAT, Gray, RES, McCloskey, E et al. Clodronate in the medical management of hyperparathyroidism. Bone 1987; 8: (suppl 1): 569–77.
93Peace, K, Page, MD, Barth, JH, Belchetz, PE.Lack of effect of clodronate in mild primary hyperparathyroidism. J Endocrinol 1992; 132: Abstract 125.
94Karstrup, S.Transbøl, I, Holm, HH et al. Ultrasound-guided chemical parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective study. Br J Radiol 1989; 62: 1037–42.
95Graham, K, Williams, BO, Rowe, MJ.Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism: a cause of fits in the elderly. Br Med J 1974; i: 1460–61.
96Eraut, D.Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism presenting as dementia. Br Med J 1974; i: 429–30.
97Rude, RK, Oldham, SB, Singer, FR.Functional hypoparathyroidism and parathyroid hormone end-organ resistance in human magnesium deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1976; 5: 209–24.
98Belchetz, PE. Disorders of the parathyroids. In: Brocklehurst, JC, Tallis, RC, Fillit, H eds. Textbook of geriatric medicine and gerontology, fourth edition. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1992: 717–23.
99Kemp, BE, Moseley, JM, Rodda, CP et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein of malignancy: active synthetic fragments. Science 1987; 238: 1568–70.
100Harvey, JN, Gray, C, Belchetz, PE.Oncogenous osteomalacia in association with benign and malignant tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1992; 37: 379–82.
101Solomon, A, Weiss, DT, Kattine, AA.Nephrotoxic potential of Bence Jones proteins. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1845–51.
102Hordon, LD, Peacock, M.Vitamin D metabolism in women with femoral neck fracture. Bone Miner 1987; 2: 413–26.
103Belchetz, PE. Pituitary adrenal disorders in old age. In: Brocklehurst, JC, Tallis, RC, Fillit, H eds. Textbook of geriatric medicine and gerontology, fourth edition. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1992: 694700.
104Geellhoed, GW, Druy, EM.Management of the adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. Surgery 1982; 92: 866–74.
105Virkkala, A, Valimaki, M, Pelkonen, R et al. Endocrine abnormalities in patients with adrenal tumors incidentally discovered on computed tomography. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1989; 121: 6772.

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Endocrine disorders

  • Paul E Belchetz (a1)


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