1Cameron, ID, Kurrie, SE. Rehabilitation and older people. Med J Austr 2002; 177: 387–91.
2Hoenig, H, Rubenstein, L. Hospital-associated deconditioning and dysfunction. (Editorial). J Am Soc Geriatr 1991; 39: 220–22.
3Creditor, M. Hazards of hospitalization of the elderly. Ann Intern Med 1993; 118: 219–23.
4Hirsch, C, Sommers, L, Olsen, A, Mullen, L, Winograd, C. The natural history of functional morbidity in hospitalized older patients. J Am Soc Geriatr 1990; 38: 1296–303.
5Knoefel, FD, Helliwell, B, Seabrook, JA et al. A comparison of the functional independence and medical complexity in geriatric and physical medicine and rehabilitation in-patients. Geriatr Today: J Can Geriatr Soc 2003; 6: 90–94
6Black, S, Rush, R. Cognitive and functional decline in adults aged 75 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 1978–86.
7McIntosh-Michaelis, S, Roberts, M, Wilkinson, S et al. The prevalence of cognitive impairment in a community survey of multiple sclerosis. Br J Clin Psychol 1991; 30: 333–48.
8Landi, F, Russo, A, Barillaro, C et al. Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment among older persons living in the community. Aging Clin Exp Res 2007; 19: 410–16.
9Cahill, S, Dooley, A. The historical context of rehabilitation and its application to dementia care. In Marshall, M ed. Perspectives on rehabilitation and dementia. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2005.
10Schuman, J, Beattie, E, Steed, D, Merry, G, Kraus, A. Geriatric patients with and without intellectual dysfunction: effectiveness of a standard rehabilitation program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981; 62: 612–18.
11Billig, N, Ahmed, S, Kenmore, P, Amaral, D, Shakhashire, M. Assessment of depression and cognitive impairment after hip fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 499–503.
12Garrett, D, Cowdell, F. Physical rehabilitation for patients with dementia: reality and research – the missing links. CME Geriatr Med 2005; 7:38–44.
13Department of Health. National Service Framework for Older People. London. Department of Health, HMSO, 2001.
14Lindesay, J, Briggs, K, Murphy, E. The Guy's/Age Concern survey. Prevalence rates of cognitive impairment, depression and anxiety in an urban elderly community. Br J Psychiatry 1989; 155: 317–29.
15Audit Commission. Forget-me-not: mental health services for older people. London. Audit Commission 2000.
16Garcia, C, Tweedy, J, Blass, J. Underdiagnosis of cognitive impairment in a rehabilitation setting. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 339–42.
17Hinkka, K, Karppi, S, Aaltonen, T et al. A network-based geriatric rehabilitation programme: study design and baseline characteristics of the patients. Int J Rehabil Res 2006; 29: 97–103.
18Mast, B, Macneil, S, Lichtenberg, P. Geropsychological problems in medical rehabilitation: dementia and depression among stroke and lower-extremity fracture patients. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54: M607–12.
19Folstein, MF, Folstein SE, McHugh, PR. ‘Mini-Mental State’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
20Ruchinskas, R. Rehabilitation therapists recognition of cognitive and mood disorders in geriatric patients. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2002; 83: 609–12.
21Chodosh, J, Petitti, D, Elliott, M et al. Physician recognition of cognitive impairment: evaluating the need for improvement. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1051–59.
22Bowler, C, Boyle, A, Branford, M. Detection of psychiatric disorders in elderly medical in-patients. Age Ageing 1994; 23: 307–11.
23Royall, D, Lauterbach, E, Kaufer, D et al. The cognitive correlates of functional status: a review from the Committee on Research of the American Neuropsychiatric Association. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007; 19: 249–65.
24LaBuda, J, Lichtenberg, P. The role of cognition, depression and awareness of deficit in predicting geriatric rehabilitation patients IADL performance. Clin Neuropsychol 1999; 13: 258–67.
25Mahoney, FI, Barthel, DW. Functional evaluation: the Barthel Index. Maryland State Med J 1965;14:61–65.
26Droes, R-M, Boelens-van der Knoop, E, Bos, J et al. An explorative study of variations in opinions among people with dementia and their professional caregivers and in literature. Dementia 2006; 5: 533–58.
27Marengoni, A, Aguero-Torres, H, Timpini, A, Cossi, S, Fratiglioni, L. Rehabilitation and nursing-home admission after hospitalization for acute geriatric patients. J Am Med Dir Asssoc 2008; 9; 265–70.
28Bellelli, G, Magnifico, F, Trabucchi, M. Outcomes at 12 months in a population of elderly patients discharged from a rehabilitation unit. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2008; 9: 55–64.
29Rubenstein, L, Wieland, D et al. The Sepulveda VA Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit: data on 4-year outcomes and predictors of improved patient outcomes. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 503–12.
30Friedman, PJ, Baskett, JJ, Richmond, DE. Cognitive jmpairment and its relationship to gait rehabilitation in the elderly. NZ Med J 1989; 102: 603–06.
31Caradoc-Davies, T. Medical profiles of patients admitted to a geriatric assessment and rehabilitation unit. NZ Med J 1987; 9: 557–59.
32Stahelin, H. Cognitive prerequisites of geriatric rehabilitation. Z Gerontol Geriatr 2000; 33: 24–27.
33Pomeroy, V, Warren, C, Honeycombe, C. Mobility and dementia: Is physiotherapy treatment during respite care effective? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14: 389–97.
34Resnick, B, Daly, M. Predictors of functional ability in geriatric rehabilitation patients. Rehabil Nurs 1998; 23: 21–29.
35Landi, F, Bernabei, R, Russo, A et al. Predictors of rehabilitation outcomes in frail patients treated in a geriatric hospital. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 679–84.
36Johnson, M, Kramer, A, Lin, M, Kowalsky, J, Steiner, J. Outcomes of older persons receiving rehabilitation for medical and surgical conditions compared with hip fracture and stroke. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 1389–97.
37Patrick, L, Leber, M, Johnstone, S. Aspects of cognitive status as predictors of mobility following geriatric rehabilitation. Aging (Milano) 1996; 8: 328–33.
38Coster, W, Haley, S, Jette, A, Tao, W, Siebens, H. Predictors of basic and instrumental activities of daily living performance in persons receiving rehabilitation services. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88: 928–35.
39Gindin, J, Walter-Ginzburg, A, Geitzen, M et al. Predictors of rehabilitation outcomes: a comparison of Israeli and Italian geriatric postacute care (PAC) facilities using the minimum data set (MDS). J Am Med Dir Assoc 2007; 8: 233–42.
40Diamond, PT et al. Effect of cognitive impairment on rehabilitation outcome. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 75: 40–43.
41Heyn, P et al. The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 1694–704.
42Evans, F L, Sullivan-Marx, E. Functional outcomes for older adults with cognitive impairment in a comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facility. J Nurs Schol J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53: 1599–606.
43Colombo, M, Guaita, A, Cottino, M et al. The impact of cognitive impairment on the rehabilitation process in geriatrics. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 2004; 9: 85–92.
44Resnick, B, Daly, MP. The effect of cognitive status on outcomes following rehabilitation. Fam Med 1997; 29: 400–05.
45Inagaki, T, Yamamoto, T, Nokura, K et al. Effect and prognosis of rehabilitation for cerebrovascular dementia in the elderly. Jpn J Geriatr 1990; 27: 33–39.
46Ghisla, MK, Cossi, S, Timpini, A, Baroni, F, Facchi, E, Marengoni, A. Predictors of successful rehabilitation in geriatric patients: a subgroup analysis of patients with cognitive impairment. Ageing Clin Exp Res 2007; 19: 417–23.
47Cartwright, DL, Madill, HM, Dennis, S. Cognitive impairment and functional performance of patients admitted to a geriatric assessment and rehabilitation centre. Phys Occ Ther Geriatr 1996; 14: 1–21.
48Raj, G, Munir, J, Ball, L, Carr, D. An inpatient rehabilitation service for deconditioned older adults. Top Geriatr Rehabil Funct Cogn 2007; 23: 126–36.
49Meinck, M, Freigang, K, John, B, Keitel, C, Puls, E, Robra, B. Outpatient geriatric rehabilitation: an evaluation of two models assessing trends of medical outcomes. Die Rehabil 2003; 42: 45–51.
50Hershkovitz, A, Brill, S. The association between patient's cognitive status and rehabilitation outcome in a geriatric day hospital. Disabil Rehabil 2007; 29: 333–37.
51Yu, F, Richmond, T. Factors affecting outpatient rehabilitation outcomes in elders. J Nurs Schol 2005: 37: 229–36.
52Zekry, D, Herrmann, F, Grandjean, R et al. Demented versus non-demented very old inpatients: the same co-morbidities but poorer functional and nutritional status. Age Ageing 2008; 37: 83–89.
53Barnes, C, Conner, D, Legault, L, Reznickova, N, Harrison-Felix, C. Rehabilitation outcomes in cognitively impaired patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities from the community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 1602–07.
54Watanabe, Y. The long-term effect of day centre rehabilitation on individuals with dementia. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 1996; 71: 391–402.
55Nagaya, M, Endo, H, Kachi, T, Abe, Y, Ota, T. Recreational rehabilitation improved cognitive function in vascular dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53: 911–12.
56Londos, E, Boschian, K, Linden, A, Persson, C, Minthon, L, Lexell, J. Effects of a goal-orientated rehabilitation program in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Am J Alzheimer Dis other dementias 2008; 23: 177–83.
57Heyn, P, Johnson, K, Kramer, A. Endurance and strength training outcomes on cognitively impaired and cognitively intact older adults: a meta-analysis. The J Nutr Health Ageing 2008; 12: 401–09.
58Baldelli, M, Boiardi, R, Ferrari, P, Bianchi, S, Bianchi, M. Dementia and occupational therapy. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2007; 44: 45–48.
59Davies, A, Gargaro, P, Dodd, A, Smith, C. Mental status and occupational therapy outcome in teaching dressing skills to the disabled elderly. Clin Rehabil 1989; 3:293–98.
60Graff, M, Vernooij-Dassen, M, Marjolein, et al. Effects of community occupational therapy on quality of life, mood and health status in dementia patients and their caregivers: a randomized control trial. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 1002–09.
61Stott, D, Buttery, A, Bowman, A et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and home-based rehabilitation for elderly people with a history of recurrent non-elective hospital admissions. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 487–91.
62Ballard, C, Shaw, F, Lowery, K, McKeith, I, Kenney, R. The prevalence, assessment and association of falls in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. Dement Cogn Disord 1999; 10: 97–103.
63Gruber-Baldini, A, Zimmerman, S, Morrison, R et al. Cognitive impairment in hip- fracture patients: timing of detection and longitudinal follow up. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51:1227–36.
64Goldstein, C, Strasser, D, Woodard, J, Roberts, V. Functional outcome of cognitively impaired hip-fracture patients on a geriatric rehabilitation unit. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 35–42.
65Millis, S, Lichtenberg, P, Dijkers, M. Predicting bowel and bladder continence from cognitive status in geriatric rehabilitation patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75: 590–93.
66Heruti, R, Lusky, A et al. Cognitive status at admission: does it affect the rehabilitation outcome of elderly patients with hip fracture? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 432–36.
67Lenze, E, Muni, M et al. Adverse effects of depression and cognitive impairment on rehabilitation participation and recovery from hip fracture.Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1994; 19: 472–78.
68Mossey, J, Mutran, E et al. Determinants of recovery 12 months after hip fracture. The importance of psychological factors. Am J Pub Health 1989; 79: 279–86.
69Dorra, HH, Lenze, EJ, Yookyung, K et al. . Clinically relevant behaviours in hip fracture in elderly patients. Int J Psychiatry Med 2002; 32: 249–59.
70Beaupre, LA, Cinats, JG, Jones, CA et al. Does functional recovery in elderly hip fracture patients differ between patients admitted from long-term care and the community? J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62A: 1127–33.
71Hakkinen, A, Heinonen, M, Kautiainen, H, Huusko, T, Sulkava, R, Karppi, P. Effect of cognitive impairment on basic activities of daily living in hip fracture patients: at 1-year follow-up. Ageing Clin Exp Res 2007; 19: 139–44.
72Bellelli, G, Frisoni, GB, Pagani, M, Magnifico, F, Trabucchi, M. Does cognitive performance affect physical therapy regimen after hip fracture surgery? Ageing Clin Exp Res 2007; 19: 119–24.
73Magaziner, J, Simonsick, EM, Kashner, TM, Hebel, JR, Kenzora, JE. Predictors of functional recovery one year following hospital discharge for hip fracture: a prospective study. J Gerontol 1990; 45: M101–M107.
74Parker, MJ, Palmer, CR. Prediction of rehabilitation after hip fracture. Age Ageing 1995; 24: 96–98.
75Rydholm-Hedman, AM, Grafstrom, M. Conditions for rehabilitation of older patients with dementia and hip fracture– the perspective of their next of kin. Scand J Caring Sci 2001; 15: 151–58.
76Givens, J, Sanft, T, Marcantonio, E. Functional recovery after hip fracture: the combined effects of depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and delirium. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 1075–79.
77Hershkovitz, A, Kalandariov, Z, Hermush, V, Weiss, R, Brill, S. Factors affecting the short-term rehabilitation outcomes of disabled elderly patients with proximal hip fracture. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88: 916–21.
78Svensson, O, Stromberg, L, Ohlen, G, Lindgren, U. Prediction of the outcome after hip fracture in elderly patients. J Bone Joint Surg 1996; 78: 115–18.
79Lieberman, D, Fried, D, Castel, H, Weitzman, S, Lowenthal, M, Galinsky, D. Factors related to successful rehabilitation after hip fracture: a case control study. Disabil Rehabil 1996; 5: 224–30.
80Ensberg, MD, Paletta, MJ, Galecki, AT, Dacko, CL, Fries, BE. Identifying elderly patients for early discharge after hospitalization for hip fracture. J Gerontol Med Sci 1993; 48: M187–M195.
81McCracken, AL, Gilster, SD. Outcomes of people with a fractured hip and dementia who reside in a specialized nursing home. Top Geriatr Rehabil 1995; 11: 2029.
82McGilton, K, Wells, J, Davis, A et al. Rehabilitating patients with dementia who have had a hip fracture. Part II: Cognitive symptoms that influence care. Top Geriatr Rehabil Funct Cogn 2007; 23: 174–82.
83Huusko, TM et al. Randomised, clinically controlled trial of extensive geriatric rehabilitation in patients with hip fracture: subgroup analysis of patients with dementia. BMJ 2000; 321:1107–1111.
84Lenze, E, Skidmore, E et al. Does depression, apathy or cognitive impairment reduce the benefit of inpatient rehabilitation facilities for elderly hip-fracture patients? Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2007; 29: 141–46.
85Rolland, Y, Pillard, F, Lauwers-Cances, V, Busquere, F, Vellas, B, Lafont, C. Rehabilitation outcome of elderly patients with hip fracture and cognitive impairment. Disabil Rehabil 2004; 26: 425–31.
86Goldstein, FC, Strasser, DC, Woodard, JL, Roberts, VJ. Functional outcome of cognitively impaired hip fracture patients on a geriatric rehabilitation unit. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 1406–07.
87Beloosesky, Y, Grinblat, J, Epelboym, B, Hendel, D. Dementia does not significantly affect complications and functional gain in elderly patients operated on for intracapsular hip fracture. Arch Orthopaed Trauma Surg 2001; 121: 257–60>.
88Hamman, R. Rehabilitation following hip fracture in patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Am J Alzheimer's Dis 1997; 12: 209–11.
89Schulz, M. Intensive geriatric rehabilitation reduced hospital stay and time to independent living in hip-fracture patients with mild to moderate dementia. Evid Based Nurs 2001; 4: 54.
90Logters, T, Hakimi, M, Linhart, W et al. Early interdisciplinary geriatric rehabilitation after hip fracture: Effective concept or just transfer of costs? Der Unfallchirurg 2008 (in press).
91Barnes, B. Ambulation outcomes after hip fracture. Phys Ther 1984; 64: 317–20.
92Giusti, A, Barone, A, Pioli, G. Rehabilitation after hip fracture in patients with dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1309–10.
93Hegener, K, Krause, T, von Renteln-Kruse, W. Patient characteristics and factors associated with unfavourable in-hospital rehabilitation therapy outcome in very old geriatric patients with first-ever ischemic stroke: a retrospective case-control study. Z Gerontol Geriatrie 2007; 40: 457–62.
94Becker, G, Kruse, A, Tronnier, J et al. Rehabilitation processes and sustainability–first results of a rehabilitation study of geriatric stoke patients. Z Gerontol Geriatrie 2006; 39: 365–70.
95Milinaviciene, E, Rastenyte, D, Krisciunas, A. Factors influencing the functional state recovery in cerebral stroke patients during the second rehabilitation stage. Medicina (Kaunas) 2008; 44: 500–09.
96Lehman, J, DeLateur, B, Fowler, R et al. Stroke rehabilitation: outcome and prediction. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1975; 56: 383–89.
97Zinn, S, Dudley, T, Bosworth, H, Hoenig, H, Duncan, P, Horner, R. The effect of post-stroke cognitive impairment on rehabilitation process and functional outcome. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2004; 85: 1084–90.
98Heruti, R, Lusky, A, Dankner, R et al. Rehabilitation outcome of elderly patients after a first stroke: effect of cognitive status at admission on the functional outcome. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2002; 83: 742–49.
99Patel, M, Coshall, C, Rudd, A, Wolfe, C. Cognitive impairment after stroke: clinical determinants and its associations with long-term stroke outcomes. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 700–06.
100Schut, L. Dementia following stroke. Clin Geriatr Med 1988; 4: 767–84.
101Galski, T, Bruno, R, Zorowitz, R, Walker, J. Predicting length of stay, functional outcome and aftercare in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. The dominant role of higher-order cognition. Stroke 1993; 24: 1794–1800.
102Saxena, S, Ng, T, Yong, D, Fong, N, Koh, G. Sub-threshold depression and cognitive impairment but not demented in stroke patients during their rehabilitation. Acta Neurol Scand 2008; 117: 133–40.
103Saxena, S. Prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment in stroke patients in a rehabilitation setting. Int J Psychosoc Rehabil 2006; 10:37–47.
104Nas, K, Gur, A, Cevik, R, Sarac, A. The relationship between physical impairment and disability during stroke rehabilitation: effect of cognitive status. Int J Rehabil Res 2004; 27: 181–84.
105Rabadi, M, Rabadi, F, Edelstein, L, Peterson, M. Cognitively impaired stroke patients do benefit from admission to an acute rehabilitation unit. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2008; 89: 441–48.
106Dalwood, N, Morris, M, Stillman, B. Relationship between cognitive impairment and physical function in acute stroke patients without communication deficits. Physiother Singapore 2005; 8:13–17.
107Paradee, C, Rapport, L, Hanks, R, Levy, J. Circadian preference and cognitive functioning among rehabilitation inpatients. Clin Neuropsychol 2005; 19: 55–72.