1Ng, S-C, Bongso, TA, Ratnam, SS et al. Pregnancy after transfer of multiple sperm under the zona. Lancet 1988; ii: 790.
2Fishel, SB, Antinori, S, Jackson, P et al. Twin birth after subzonal insemination. Lancet 1990; ii: 722.
3Schmidt, HD. Minute structure of the hepatic lobules particularly with reference to the relationship between capiliary blood vessels and the hepatic cells. Am J Med Sci 1895; 37: 13–40.
4Peterfi, T. Das mikrurgische Verfahren. Naturwissenschaften 1923; 11: 81–87.
5Taylor, AJ, Farber, D. Fatal effects of the removal of the micronucleus in euplotes. University of California Publications in Zoology 1924; 26: 131–35.
6Chambers, R, Fell, HB. Micro-operations on cells in tissue cultures. Proc R Soc Land 1931; 109: 381–92.
7Hammerling, J. Nucleo-cytoplasmic relationships in the development of Acetabularia. Int Rev Cytol 1953; 2: 475–98.
8Lin, TP. Microinjection of mouse eggs. Science 1966; 151: 33–37.
9Lin, TP. Micropipetting cytoplasm from the mouse eggs. Nature 1967; 216: 162–63.
10Lin, TP. D-L-Methionine (Sulphur-35) for labelling unfertilized mouse eggs in transplantation. Nature 1956; 178: 1175–76.
11Tarkowski, AK. Mouse chimereas developed from fused eggs. Nature 1961; 190: 857–60.
12Moore, NW, Adams, CE, Rosen, LEA. Developmental potential of single blastomeres of the rabbit. J Reprod Fertil 1968; 17: 527–31.
13Mintz, B. Allophenic mice of multi-embryo origin. In: Daniel, JC ed. Methods in mammalian embryology. San Francisco: Freeman, 1971: 186–214.
14Fetters, RM, Mettus, RV. Survival to term of chimaeric morulae produced by aggregation of 5–9 embryos in the mouse, Mus Musclus. Theriogenology 1984; 22: 167–74.
15Gardner, RL, Edwards, RG. Control of the sex ratio at full term in the rabbit by transferring sexed blastocysts. Nature 1968; 218: 346–48.
16Willadsen, SM. Developmental capacity of blastomeres from 4-cell and 8-cell sheep embryos. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1981; 65: 165–72.
17Markert, CL. Fertilization of mammalian eggs by sperm injection. J Exp Zool 1983; 228: 195–201.
18Iritani, A, Hosoi, Y. Microfertilization by various methods in mammalian species. In: Joshinaga, K, Mori, T eds. Development of pre-implantation embryos and their environment. New York: Allan R Liss, 1989: 145–49.
19Keefer, CL, Younis, AI, Brackett, BG. Cleavage development of bovine oocytes fertilized by sperm injection. Mol Reprod Dev 1990; 25: 281–85.
20Gordon, JW, Talansky, BE. Assisted fertilization by zona drilling, a mouse model for correction of oligospermia. J Exp Zool 1986; 239: 347–54.
21Yang, X, Chen, J, Chen, Y, Foote, RH. Survival of rabbit eggs shrunken to aid in sperm micro-injection. Theriogenology 1988; 29: 336 (Abstract).
22Lacham, O, Trounson, A, Holden, C, Mann, J, Sathananthan, H. Fertilization and development of mouse eggs injected under the zona pellucida with single spermatozoa treated to induce the acrosome reaction. Gamete Res 1989; 23: 233–43.
23Metka, M, Haromy, T, Huber, J, Schurz, B. Artificial insemination using a micromanipulator. Fertilitat 1985; 1: 41–47.
24Laws-King, A, Trounson, A, Sathananthan, H, Kola, I. Fertilization of human oocytes by micro-injection of a single spermatozoon under the zona pellucida. Fertil Steril 1987; 48: 637–42.
25Lanzendorf, E, Maloney, MK, Veeck, LL, Slusser, J, Hodgen, GD, Rosenwaks, Z. A preclinical evaluation of human spermatozoa into human oocytes. Fertil Steril 1988; 49: 835–42.
26Gordon, JW, Grunfeld, J, Garrisi, GJ, Talansky, BE, Richards, C, Laufer, N. Fertilization of human oocytes by sperm from infertile males after zona pellucida drilling. Fertil Steril 1988; 50: 68–73.
27Cohen, J, Malter, M, Fehilly, C et al. Implantation of embryos after partial opening of oocyte zona pellucida to facilitate sperm penetration. Lancet 1988; ii: 162.
28Cohen, J, Eisner, C, Kort, H et al. Impairment of the hatching process following IVF in the human and improvement of implantation by assisting hatching using micromanipulation. Human Reprod 1990; 5: 7–13.
29Ng, S-C, Sathananthan, AH, Edirisinghe, WR et al. Fertilization of a human egg with sperm from a patient with immotile cilia syndrome: case report. In: Ratnam, SS, Teoh, ES, Anandakumar, C eds. Advances in fertility and sterility, Volume 4. Lancaster, UK: Parthenon Publishing, 1987: 716.
30Malter, HE, Cohen, J. Embryonic development after microsurgical repair of polyspermic human zygotes. Fertile Steril 1989; 52: 373–80.
31Gordon, JW, Grunfeld, L, Garrisi, GJ, Navat, D, Laufer, N. Successful microsurgical removal of pronuclei from tripronuclear hamster zygotes. Fertil Steril 1989; 52: 367–72.
32Rawlins, RG, Binor, Z, Radwaska, E, Dmowski, WP. Microsurgical enucleation of tripronuclear human zygotes. Fertil Steril 1988; 50: 266–72.
33Malter, HE, Cohen, J. Partial zona dissection of human oocytes: a non-traumatic method using micromanipulation assists zona pellucida penetration. Fertil Steril 1989; 51: 139–48.
34Cohen, J, Alikani, M, Adler, A et al. Microsurgical fertilization procedures: the absence of stringent criteria for patient selection. J Assist Reprod Genet 1992; 9: 197–206.
35Cohen, J, Alikani, M, Maker, HE, Adler, A, Talansky, BE, Rosenwaks, Z. Partial zona dissection or subzonal insertion: microsurgical fertilization alternatives based on evaluation of sperm and embryo morphology. Fertil Steril 1991; 56: 696–706.
36Malter, HE, Alikani, M, Grifo, J, Talanksy, BE, Rosenwaks, Z. Microsurgical fertilization and zona pellucida micromanipulation. In: Fishel, SB, Symonds, EM eds. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction. Sevenoaks, UK: Edward Arnold, 1993: 101–18.
37Mashiach, S. Micro-assisted reproduction: is it the treatment of choice after fertilisation failure? In: Fishel, SB, Symonds, EM eds. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction. Sevenoaks, UK: Edward Arnold, 1993: 133–37.
38Fishel, SB, Timson, J. Sperm-egg manipulation for the treatment of male infertility. In: Templeton, AA, Drife, JO eds. Infertility. London: Springer-Verlag, 1992: 115–132.
39Fishel, SB, Timson, J, Antinori, S, Lisi, F, Rinaldi, L. Subzonal insemination and zona breaching techniques for assisted fertilisation. In: Fishel, SB, Symonds, EM eds. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction. Sevenoaks, UK: Edward Arnold, 1993: 79–97.
40Fishel, S, Timson, J, Lisi, F, Rinaldi, L. The evaluation of 225 patients undergoing subzonal insemination for the procurement of fertilization in vitro. Fertil Steril 1992; 57: 840–49.
41Hall, J, Fishel, SB, Timson, J. Evaluation of sperm morphology as a prognosticator for SUZI or IVF. (Unpublished observations.)
42Fishel, S. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction: perspicacity or opacity? In: Fishel, SB, Symonds, EM eds. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction. Sevenoaks, UK: Edward Arnold, 1993: 193–203.
43Payne, D, McLaughlin, KJ, Depypere, HT, Kirby, CA, Warnes, GM, Matthews, CD. Experience with zona drilling and zona cutting to improve fertilization rates of human oocytes in vitro. Human Reprod 1991; 6: 423–31.
44Schmutzler, AG, Al-Hasani, S, Casper, AN, Viabold, A, Diedrich, K, Krebs, D. Assisted fertilization: SZI and PZD with mostly severe and very severe teratozoospermia. Abstract from VIIIth Meeting of ESHRE. Human Reprod 1992; Abstract 256: 115.
45Palermo, G, Joris, H, Devroey, P, Van Steirteghem, AC. Induction of acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa used for subzonal insemination. Human Reprod 1992; 7: 248–54.
46Van de Leur, JJCM, Zeilmaker, GH. Microinsemination compared with IVF in the same patients. Abstract from VIIIth Meeting of ESHRE. Human Reprod 1992; Abstract 252: 137–38.
47Jean, M, Barriere, P, Sagot, P, L'Hermite, A, Lopes, P. Utility of zona pellucida drilling in cases of severe semen alterations in man. Fertil Steril 1992; 57: 591–96.
48Tucker, MJ, Bishop, FM, Cohen, J, Wiker, SR, Wright, V. Routine application of partial zona dissection for male factor infertility. Human Reprod 1991; 6: 676–81.
49Ng, S-C, Bongso, A, Ratnam, SS. Micro-injection of human oocytes: the technique for severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Fertil Steril 1991; 56: 1117–23.
50Fishel, SB, Lymberopolous, G, Timson, J. Increasing insemination concentration for IVF/microdrop IVF with spermatozoa from infertile males. (Unpublished observations.)
51Palermo, G, Joris, H, Devroey, P, Van Steirteghem, AC. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet 1992; 340: 17–18.
52Iritani, A. Micromanipulation of gametes for in vitro assisted fertilization. Mol Reprod Dev 1991; 28: 199–207.
53Veeck, LL, Oehninger, S, Acosta, AA, Muasher, SJ. Sperm microinjection in a clinical in vitro fertilization program. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the American Fertility Society, 13–16 November 1989, San Francisco. Birmingham, Alabama: American Fertility Society, 1990.
54Kola, I, Lacham, O, Jensen, RPS, Turner, N, Trounson, A. Chromosomal analysis of human oocytes fertilised by micro-injection of spermatozoa into the perivitelline space. Human Reprod 1990; 5: 575–77.
55Aitken, RJ. The zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test and the diagnosis of male infertility. Int J Androl 1986; 6: 1–199.
56Ng, S-C, Liow, L, Bongso, TA et al. Micromanipulation and possible new approaches to help the severe male-factor patient. J Assist Reprod Genet 1992; 9: 191–96.
57Fuscaldo, G, Sovieszczuk, D, Trounson, AO. Improved fertilization rates following micro-injection of human spermatozoa pretreated with 2'-deoxyadenosine and pentoxifylline: VIIth World Congress IVF and Assisted Procreation, Paris. Human Reprod 1991; 110: 145–46 [Abstract].
58Suarez, SS, Wolf, DP, Mei, ZEL. Induction of the acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa by a fraction of human follicular fluid. Gamete Res 1986; 14: 107–21.
59Tesarik, J. Comparison of acrosome reaction-inducing activities of human cumulus oophorus, follicular fluid and ionophore A23187 in human sperm populations of proven fertilizing ability in vitro. J Reprod Fertil 1985; 74: 383–88.
60Bleil, JD, Wassarman, PM. Sperm-egg interactions in the mouse: sequence of events and induction of the acrosome reaction by a zona pellucida glycoprotein. Dev Biol 1983; 95: 317–24.
61Tompkins, FT, Houghton, JA. The rapid induction of the acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa by electropermeabilisation. Fertil Steril 1988; 50: 329–36.
62Green, S, Fishel, SB, Timson, J, Hall, J. The induction of the acrosome reaction in human sperm populations undergoing micromanipulation. (Unpublished observations.)
63Ng, S-C, Bongso, TA, Liow, SL, Edirisinghe, R, Tok, V, Ratnam, SS. Controversies in micro-injection. J Assist Reprod Genet 1992; 9: 186–89.
64Martin-DeLeon, PA, Shaver, EL, Gammal, EB. Chromosome abnormalities in rabbit blastocytes resulting from spermatozoa aged in the male tract. Fertil Steril 1973; 24: 212–19.
65Martin, RH, Ko, E, Rademaker, A. Human sperm chromosome compliments after micro-injection of hamster eggs. J Reprod Fertil 1988; 84: 179–86.
66Sathananthan, AH, Kola, I, Osborne, A et al. Centrioles in the beginning of human development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 4806–10.
67Goto, K, Kinoshita, A, Takuma, Y, Ogawa, K. Fertilization of bovine oocytes by the injection of immobilised, killed spermatozoa. Vet Rec 1990; 127: 517–20.
68Cohen, J, Eisner, C, Kort, H et al. Impairment of the hatching process following IVF in a human and improvement of implantation by assisting hatching using micromanipulation. Human Reprod 1990; 5: 7–13.
69Cohen, J. Assisted hatching of human embryos. J In Vitro Fert Embyro Transf 1991; 8: 179–90.
70Cohen, J, Alikani, M, Trowbridge, J, Rosenwaks, Z. Implantation enhancement by selective assisted hatching using zona drilling of human embryos with poor prognosis. Human Reprod 1992; 7: 685–91.
71Malter, HE, Cohen, J. Blastocyst formation and hatching in vitro following zona drilling of mouse and human embryos. Gamete Res 1989; 24: 67–80.
72Cohen, J, Feldberg, D. Effects of the size and number of zone pellucida openings on hatching and tropho-blast outgrowth in the mouse embryo. Mol Reprod Dev 1991; 30: 70–78.
73Dale, B, Gualitierei, R, Talevi, R, Tosti, E, Santella, L, Elder, K. Intercellular communication in the early human embryo. Mol Reprod Dev 1991; 29: 22–28.
74Verlinksy, Y, Ginsburg, N, Lifchez, A, Valle, J, Moise, J, Strom, CM. Analysis of the first polar body: preconception genetic diagnosis. Human Reprod 1990; 5: 826–69.
75Handyside, AH. Pre-implantation diagnosis strategies for embryo biopsy and genetic analysis. In: Fishel, SB, Symonds, EM eds. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction. Sevenoaks, UK: Edward Arnold, 1993: 173–82.
76Fishel, SB. Prelude to pre-implantation diagnosis in the human. In: Fishel, SB, Symonds, EM eds. Gamete and embryo micromanipulation in human reproduction. Sevenoaks, UK: Edward Arnold, 1993: 141–54.
77Navidi, W, Arnheim, N. Using PCR in preimplantation genetic disease diagnosis. Human Reprod 1991; 6: 836–49.
78Verlinsky, Y, Rechitsky, S, Evsikov, S et al. Preconception and pre-implantation diagnosis for cystic fibrosis. Prenat Diagn 1992; 12: 103–10.
79Handyside, AH, Lesko, J, Winston, RML, Hughes, MR. Birth of a normal girl following pre-implantation diagnostic testing of cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 905–909.
80Lesko, J, Snabes, M, Handyside, A, Hughes, M. Amplification of the cystic fibrosis delta-F508 mutation from single cells; applications towards genetic diagnosis of the pre-implantation embryo. Am J Hum Genet 1991; 49: 223.
81Handyside, AH, Pattinson, JK, Penketh, RJA, Delhanty, JDA, Winston, RML, Tuddenham, EDO. Biopsy of human pre-implantation embryos and sexing by DNA amplification. Lancet 1989; i: 347–49.
82Kontogianni, EH, Hardy, K, Handyside, A. Co-amplification of X- and Y-specific sequences for sexing preimplantation human embryos. In: Verlinsky, Y, Kulier, A eds. Preimplantation genetics. New York: Plenum Press, 1991: 139–45.
83Handyside, AH, Delhanty, JDA. Cleavage stage biopsy of human embryos and diagnosis of X-linked recessive disease. In: Edwards, RG ed. Preimplantation diagnosis of human genetic disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993 (in press).
84Strom, CM, Rechitsky, S, Verlinsky, Y. Reliability of gender determination using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for single cells. J In Vitro Pert Embryo Transf 1991; 8: 225–29.
85Holding, C, Monk, M. Diagnosis of beta-thallasemia by DNA amplification in single blastomeres from mouse pre-implantation embryos. Lancet 1989; ii: 532–35.
86Li, H, Cui, X, Arnheim, N. Direct electrophoretic detection of the allelic state of the single DNA molecules in human sperm by using the polymerase chain reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 4580–84.
87Gomez, CM, Muggleton-Harris, AL, Whittingham, D, Hood, L, Readhead, C. Rapid pre-implantation detection of mutant (shiverer) and normal alleoles of the mouse myeline basic protein gene allowing selective implantation and birth of live young. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 4481–84.
88Pickering, SJ, McConnell, JM, Johnson, MH, Braudie, PR. Reliability of detection by polymerase chain reaction of the sickle cell-containing region of the β-globin gene in single human blastomeres. Hum Reprod 1992; 7: 630–36.
89Dokras, A, Sargeant, IL, Ross, C, Gardner, RL, Barlow, DH. Trophectoderm biopsy in human blastocysts. Hum Reprod 1990; 5: 821–25.
90Fishel, SB, Cohen, J, Fehily, C, Purdy, JM, Walters, E, Edwards, RG. Factors influencing human embryonic development in vitro. N Y Acad Sci 1985; 442: 342–56.
91Hardy, K, Handyside, AH, Winston, RML. Human blastocysts; cell number, death and allocation during later pre-implantation development in vitro. Development 1989; 107: 597–604.
92Dawson, KJ, Rutherford, AJ, Winston, NJ, Subak-Sharpe, R, Winston, RML. Human blastocyst transfer, is it a feasible proposition? Hum Reprod 1988; 145(suppl): 44–45.
93Bolton, VN, Wren, ME, Parsons, JH. Pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and transfer of human blastocysts. Fertil Steril 1991; 55: 830–32.
94Handyside, AH, Kontogianni, EH, Hardy, K, Winston, RML. Pregnancies from human pre-implantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. Nature 1990; 344: 768–70.
95Wilton, L, Shaw, JM, Trounson, AO. Successful singlecell biopsy and cryopreservation of pre-implantation mouse embryos. Fertil Steril 1989; 51: 513–17.
96Griffin, DK, Wilton, L, Handyside, AH, Winston, RML, Delhanty, JDA. Dual fluorescent in situ hybridisation for simultaneous detection of X and Y chromosome-specific probes for the sexing of human pre-implantation embryonic nuclei. Hum Genet 1992; 89: 18–22.
97Cohen, J, Malter, HE, Talansky, BE, Grifo, J. Micromanipulation of human gametes and embryos. New York: Raven Press, 1992.
98Fishel, S, Timson, J, Lisi, F, Jacobson, M, Rinaldi, L, Gobetz, L. Micro-assisted fertilization (MAP) in patients who have failed subzonal insemination (SUZI). 1993 (unpublished observations).