Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Counting the Dead: Traditions of Enumeration and the Italian Wars*

  • John Gagné (a1)

Abstract

Methods for counting war deaths developed alongside structural changes in the ways that states enumerated mortality (for both fighters and citizens) between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. This paper argues that an alternative way to interpret observers’ comments on the magnitude and novelty of war damages during the Italian Wars (1494–1559) is to trace the history of enumerating mortality from the fourteenth century, using the Hundred Years’ War and the Black Death as departure points. Military heralds counted dead soldiers in Northern Europe and civic record keepers registered public mortality in Italy. Numbers carried cultural value. In war, disputants and observers used numbers rhetorically to argue political cases and to emphasize the scale of victories and defeats. By 1500, the proliferation of specific mortality numbers in public discourse — amplified by printed war reporting — forced observers to reckon with their meaning. The article concludes by illustrating how numbers entered memorial culture: monuments from the Italian Wars featured numbers as an index of the perceived magnitude of war in the sixteenth century.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*

I owe thanks to audiences who responded to early versions of this research at the Renaissance Society of America Annual Meeting in Chicago, 2008, as well as in seminars at Harvard University, at the University of New Hampshire, and in Peter Wilson’s research cluster at the University of Sydney with my colleagues in Classics and Ancient History, Bob Cowan, Paul Roche, and Anne Rogerson. Alex Bamji, Ann Blair, Ken Gouwens, and Katharine Park all offered helpful advice on drafts, and Frances Muecke advised my translation of the Ravenna inscription. I also appreciate the recommendations of the two anonymous RQ readers, whose suggestions improved this article immeasurably. All translations are mine unless otherwise indicated. I dedicate this work to the memory of Jo-Ann Dooley.

Footnotes

References

Hide All

Archival and Manuscript Sources

Archivio di Stato di Firenze (ASF). Dieci di Balia — Legazioni e Commissarie. Signori Dieci di Balia, Otto di Pratica — Legazioni e Commissarie — Missive e Responsive.
Archivio di Stato di Milano. Frammenti Registri Ducali.
Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milano (BAM). MS P 61 sup. Ambrogio da Paullo, Istoria della guerra d’Italia dalla venuta del Rè Carlo di Francia nell’anno 1496 fine all’anno 1512
Bibliothèque de Genève. MS Lat. 97. Raoul Bollart, De victoria et triumpho francorum Regis Ludouici huiusce nominis duodecimi Augusti patrisque regni contra Venetos.
Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris (BNF).
MS Fr. 6465. Grandes Chroniques de France, 1455–60.
MS Fr. 15534. Miscellany of French military manuscripts, sixteenth century.
MS Fr. 21508. Montres des gensdarmes, 1510–15.
MS Fr. Nouv. Acq. 5126. Documents antérieurs à la mort de François Ier.
Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milano. Inc. C 259. Miscellany of 50 pamphlets with manuscript annotations.
Koninklijke Bibliotheek van Nederland, The Hague.
MS 72 A 25. Jean Froissart, Chroniques, illuminated 1400–10.
Adam Even, Paul. “Les fonctions militaires des hérauts d’armes: Leur influence sur le développement de l’héraldique.” Archives héraldiques suisses 71 (1957): 233.
Aho, James A.Rhetoric and the Invention of Double Entry Bookkeeping.” Rhetorica 3.1 (1985): 2143.10.1525/rh.1985.3.1.21
Ainsworth, Peter F. Jean Froissart and the Fabric of History: Truth, Myth, and Fiction in the Chroniques. Oxford, 1990.
Ainsworth, Peter F.Heralds, Heraldry and the Colour Blue in the Chronicles of Jean Froissart.” In The Medieval Chronicle, ed. Erik Kooper, 4055. Amsterdam, 1999.
da Paullo, Ambrogio. “Cronaca Milanese dall’anno 1476 al 1515.” Ed. Antonio Ceruti. Miscellanea di Storia Italiana 13 (1871): 91378.
Autrand, Françoise. “The Battle of Crécy: A Hard Blow for the Monarchy of France.” In The Battle of Crécy (2005), 273–86.
Ayton, Andrew. “English Armies in the Fourteenth Century.” In Arms, Armies and Fortifications in the Hundred Years War, ed. Anne Curry and Michael Hughes, 2138. Woodbridge, 1994.
Ayton, Andrew. “Crécy and the Chroniclers.” In The Battle of Crécy (2005), 287350.
Bachrach, Bernard S.The Combat Sculptures at Fulk Nerra’s ‘Battle Abbey’ (c. 1005–1012).” The Haskins Society Journal 3 (1991): 6380.
Barrillon, Jean. Journal de Jean Barrillon secrétaire du Chancelier Duprat, 1515–1521. Ed. de Vaissière, Pierre. 2 vols. Paris, 1897.
Barthes, Roland. “L’effet de réel.” In Littérature et réalité, ed. Gérard Genette and Tzvetan Todorov, 8190. Paris, 1982.
Bartolucci, Maria Teresa. La Battaglia di Ravenna (11 aprile 1512) con particolari desunti dagli scrittori del tempo. Unpublished tesi di laurea, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 1962.
Bascapè, Giacomo C., and Marcello del Piazzo. Insegne e simboli. Araldica pubblica e privata medievale e moderna. Rome, 1983.
The Battle of Crécy, 1346. Ed. Andrew Ayton and Philip Preston. Woodbridge, 2005.
Bell, Adrian R. War and the Soldier in the Fourteenth Century. Woodbridge, 2004.
Beltrami, Francesco. Il forestiero istruito delle cose notabili della città di Ravenna e suburbane della medesima. Ravenna, 1783.
Benedictow, Ole J. The Black Death, 1346–1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge, 2004.
Bessey, Valérie. Construire l’armée française. Textes fondateurs des institutions militaires, tome 1: De la France des premiers Valois à la fin du règne de François Ier. Turnhout, 2006.
Biller, Peter. The Measure of the Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought. Oxford, 2000.
Blair, Ann. “Introduction.” Archival Science 10.3 (2010): 195200.10.1007/s10502-010-9131-0
Blair, Ann, and Peter Stallybrass. “Mediating Information, 1450–1800.” In This Is Enlightenment, ed. Clifford Siskin and William Warner, 139–63. Chicago, 2011.
Borromeo, Agostino. “Pier Donato Cesi.” Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 24 (1980): 261–66.
de Paris, Bourgeois. Le Journal d’un Bourgeois de Paris sous le règne de François Ier (1515–36). Ed. V.-L. Bourilly. Paris, 1910.
Bourne, Molly. “Mantegna’s Madonna della Vittoria and the Rewriting of Gonzaga History.” In The Patron’s Payoff: Conspicuous Commissions in Italian Renaissance Art, ed. Jonathan K. Nelson, Richard J. Zeckhauser, and Michael Spence, 166–84. Princeton, 2008.
Branciforte, Suzanne. Ars poetica rei publicae: The Herald of the Florentine Signoria. PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1990.
Bruzelius, Caroline. The Stones of Naples: Church Building in Angevin Italy, 1266–1343. New Haven, 2004.
Cabourdin, Guy, and Jacques Dupâquier. “Les sources et les institutions.” In Histoire de la population française, vol. 2, De la Renaissance à 1789, ed. Jacques Dupâquier, Guy Cabourdin, et al., 9–50. Paris, 1988.
Caferro, William P. Mercenary Companies and the Decline of Siena. Baltimore, 1998.
Caferro, William P. John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy. Baltimore, 2006.
Caferro, William P.Long-Term Service, and Permanent Forces: A Reassessment of the Florentine Army in the Fourteenth Century.” Journal of Modern History 80.2 (2008a): 219–51.10.1086/588856
Caferro, William P.Warfare and Economy in Renaissance Italy, 1350–1450.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 39.3 (2008b): 167–209.10.1162/jinh.2008.39.2.167
Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence. Cambridge, 1986.
Carpentier, Élisabeth. Une ville devant la peste. Orvieto et la Peste Noire de 1348. Paris, 1962.
Champier, Symphorien. Le fondement et origines des tiltres de noblesse. … Paris, 1535.
Chiffoleau, Jacques. La comptabilité de l’au-delà. Les hommes, la mort et la religion dans la région d’Avignon à la fin du Moyen Age (vers 1320–vers 1480). Rome, 1980.
Cipolla, Carlo. “I libri dei morti.” In Le fonti della demografia storica in Italia, 1:851–66. Rome, 1972.
Clanchy, M. T. From Memory to Written Record: England, 1066–1307. Oxford, 1993.
Contamine, Philippe. Guerre, état et société à la fin du Moyen Âge. Paris, 1972.10.1515/9783111330648
Copia delle stupende &; horribile cose che ne boschi di Bergamo sono di questi giorni apparsi. Siena, 1517. British Library, C.127.c.21.
Coyecque, E. L’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris au Moyen Age. 2 vols. Paris, 1891.
Crépin, André. “Les dépouillés des tués sur le champ de bataille dans l’histoire, les arts et la pensée du haut Moyen Âge.” In La guerre, la violence et les gens au Moyen Âge, ed. Philippe Contamine and Olivier Guyotjeannin, 1:15–24. Paris, 1996.
Croce, Benedetto. “Un poemetto del Quattrocento sulle morti dei condottieri.” La Critica (1938): 297302.
Crosby, Alfred W. The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250–1600. Cambridge, 1997.
Cuozzo, Errico. “I Cistercensi nella Campanio medioevale.” In I Cistercensi nel Mezzogiorno medioevale, ed. Hubert Houben and Benedetto Vetere, 243–84. Galatina, 1994.
Curran, Brian. The Egyptian Renaissance: The Afterlife of Ancient Egypt in Early Modern Italy. Chicago, 2007.
Curran, Brian, Anthony Grafton, Pamela O. Long, and Benjamin Weiss. Obelisk: A History. Cambridge, MA, 2009.
Curry, Anne. The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations. Woodbridge, 2000.
Curry, Anne. Agincourt: A New History. Stroud, 2005.
Dati, Gregorio. L’Istoria di Firenze. Ed. Luigi Pratesi. Norcia, 1902.
d’Auton, Jean. Chroniques de Louis XII. Ed. René de Maulde La Clavière. 4 vols. Paris, 1889–95.
Davies, T. R.The Herald in Medieval Warfare.” The Coat of Arms 9 (1968): 245–60.
De la Brière, Léon. “Dépêches de Ferry Carondelet, procureur en cour de Rome (1510–1513).” Bulletin historique et philologique du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques 1/2 (1895): 98–134.
Denifle, Henri. La désolation des églises, monastères & hôpitaux en France pendant la Guerre de Cent Ans. 2 vols. Paris, 1897.
Denis, Anne. Charles VIII et les Italiens: Histoire et Mythe. Geneva, 1979.
de Roover, Raymond. “The Development of Accounting Prior to Luca Pacioli According to the Account Books of Medieval Merchants.” In Business, Banking, and Economic Thought in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Selected Studies of Raymond de Roover, ed. Julius Kirshner, 119–80. Chicago, 1974.
de Vivo, Filippo. Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early Modern Politics. Oxford, 2007.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227068.001.0001
de Vivo, Filippo. “Ordering the Archive in Early Modern Venice (1400–1650).” Archival Science 10 (2010): 231–48.10.1007/s10502-010-9122-1
Dubois, Henri. “L’essor médiéval: Le premier monde plein.” In Histoire de la population française, vol. 1, Des origines à la Renaissance, ed. Jacques Dupâquier, Jean-Noël Biraben, et al., 207–66. Paris, 1988.
Esch, Arnold. “I mercenari svizzeri in Italia: L’esperienza delle guerre milanesi (1510–1515) tratta da fonti bernesi.” Verbanus 20 (1999): 217305.
Firnhaber-Baker, Justine. “Seigneurial War and Royal Power in Later Medieval Southern France.” Past & Present 208 (2010): 3776.
Fournel, Jean-Louis. “Guichardin et la ‘barbarie’ française.” In L’Image de l’autre européen, XVe–XVIIe siècles, ed. Jean Dufournet, Adelin Charles Fiorato, and Augustin Redondo, 109–20. Paris, 1992.
Fournel, Jean-Louis, and Zancarini, Jean-Claude. La grammaire de la république. Langages de la politique chez Francesco Guicciardini (1483–1540). Geneva, 2009.
Fowler, Kenneth A. “News from the Front: Letters and Despatches of the Fourteenth Century.” In Guerre et société en France, en Angleterre et en Bourgogne XIVe–XVe siècle, ed. Philippe Contamine, Charles Giry-Deloison, and Maurice H. Keen, 63–92. Lille, 1991.
de Lorraine, François, duc d’Aumale et de Guise. Mémoires. Ed. Michaud and Poujoulat. Paris, 1839.
Frank, Thomas. “Die Sorge um das Seelenheil in italienischen, deutchen und französischen Hospitälern.” In Hospitäler in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit, ed. Gisela Drossbach, 216–24. Munich, 2007.
Frati, Vasco ed. Il sacco di Brescia: Testimonianze, cronache, diari, atti del processo e memorie storiche. … 2 vols. Brescia, 1989.
Froissart, Jean. Chroniques: Le manuscrit d’Amiens. Ed. George T. Diller. 4 vols. Geneva, 1991.
Frugoni, Arsenio. “G. Villani, ‘Cronica,’ XI, 94.” Bullettino dell’Istituto storico italiano per il Medio Evo e archivio muratoriano 77 (1965): 229–55.
Fulcher of Chartres. A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem. Trans. Frances Rita Rayn. Ed. Harold Fink. Knoxville, 1969.
Gagliardi, Ernst. Der Anteil der Schweiz an den italienischen Kriegen 1494–1516. 2 vols. Zürich, 1919.
Gaier, Claude. “L’opinion des chefs de guerre français du XVIe siècle sur les progrès de l’art militaire.” Revue Internationale d’Histoire Militaire 29 (1970): 723–46.
Giesey, Ralph. The Royal Funeral Ceremony in Renaissance France. Geneva, 1960.
Giordano, Luisa. “La celebrazione della vittoria: L’esaltazione della storia contemporanea nelle terre della conquista.” In Louis XII en Milanais: XLIe colloque international d’études humanistes, ed. Philippe Contamine and Jean Guillaume, 245–72. Paris, 2003.
Giovio, Paolo. Historiarum sui temporis. Venice, 1555.
Goodall, J. A. “Heraldry in Italy during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.” The Coat of Arms 5 (1958): 148–55; 209–12.
Gras, Pierre. “Le registre parroissial de Givry (1334–1357) et la peste noire en Bourgogne.” La Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes 100 (1939): 295308.10.3406/bec.1939.449196
Groebner, Valentin. Defaced: The Visual Culture of Violence in the Late Middle Ages. Trans. Pamela Selwyn. New York, 2004.
Groebner, Valentin. Who Are You? Identification, Deception, and Surveillance in Early Modern Europe. Trans. Mark Kyburz and John Peck. New York, 2007.
Guerre in Ottava Rima. Vol. 2, Guerre d’Italia (1483–1527). Facsimile edition. Ed. Marina Beer, Donatella Diamanti, and Cristina Ivaldi. Modena, 1989. Cited as GOR.
Guicciardini, Francesco. Storia d’Italia. Ed. Silvana Seidel Menchi. 3 vols. Turin, 1971.
Guiffrey, Georges ed. Cronique du roy Françoys premier de ce nom. Paris, 1860.
Hale, John Rigby. “War and Public Opinion in Renaissance Italy.” In Italian Renaissance Studies (1960), 94122.
Hale, John Rigby. War and Society in Renaissance Europe, 1450–1620. Baltimore, 1985.
Hall, Bert S. Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe. Baltimore, 1997.
Hallam, Elizabeth M.Monasteries as ‘War Memorials’: Battle Abbey and La Victoire.” Studies in Church History 20 (1983): 4757.10.1017/S042420840000718X
Hay, Denys. “Italy and Barbarian Europe.” In Italian Renaissance Studies (1960), 4868.
Henneman, John Bell. Royal Taxation in Fourteenth-Century France: The Development of War Financing, 1322–1356. Princeton, 1971.
Horodowich, Elizabeth. “The Gossiping Tongue: Oral Networks, Public Life and Political Culture in Early Modern Venice.” Renaissance Studies 19.1 (2005): 2245.10.1111/j.1477-4658.2005.00084.x
Horrox, Rosemary. The Black Death. Manchester, 1994.10.7765/9781526112712
Hunnisett, H. F. “The Medieval Coroners’ Rolls.” The American Journal of Legal History 3.2 (1959): 95124.10.2307/844281
Ilardi, Vincent. “‘Italianità’ among Some Italian Intellectuals in the Early Sixteenth Century.” Traditio 22 (1956): 339–67.10.1017/S0362152900007728
Inganni, Raffaele. Origine e vicendi della cappella espiatoria francese a Zivido presso Melegnano (1515–1606). Milan, 1899.
Irwin, Robert. The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate, 1250–1382. Carbondale, 1986.
Italian Renaissance Studies: A Tribute to the Late Cecilia M. Ady. Ed. E. F. Jacob. London, 1960.
Kaeuper, Richard W. Holy Warriors: The Religious Ideology of Chivalry. Philadelphia, 2009.
Kantorowicz, Ernst. “Pro Patria Mori in Medieval Political Thought.” American Historical Review 56.3 (1951): 472–92.10.2307/1848433
Knapton, Michael. “Venice and the Terraferma.” In The Italian Renaissance State, ed. Andrea Gamberini and Isabella Lazzarini, 132–55. Cambridge, 2012.10.1017/CBO9780511845697.010
Koch, Bruno. “Kronenfresser und deutsche Franzosen: Zur sozialgeschichte der Reisläuferei aus Bern, Solothurn und Biel zur Zeit der Mailänderkriege.” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte 46 (1996): 151–84.
Köchlin, Michael. Michaelis Coccinij Tubingensis De Bellis Italicis liber unus. Basel, 1544.
Labalme, Patricia H., and Laura Sanguineti White, eds. Venice — Cità Excelentissima: Selections from the Renaissance Diaries of Marin Sanudo. Baltimore, 2008.
Lot, Ferdinand. Recherches sur les effectifs des armées françaises des guerres d’Italie aux guerres de religion, 1494-1562. Paris, 1962.
Luce, Siméon. “L’administration intérieure de l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris en 1368 et 1369.” Bulletin de la société de l’histoire de Paris et de l’Île-de-France 7 (1880): 137–44.
Lyall, R. J. “Materials: The Paper Revolution.” In Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375–1475, ed. Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall, 1129. Cambridge, 1989.
Machiavelli, Niccolò. Art of War. Ed and trans. Christopher Lynch. Chicago, 2003a.10.7208/chicago/9780226500324.001.0001
Machiavelli, Niccolò. The Prince. Trans. George Bull. New York, 2003b.10.1522/cla.man.pri
Mailles, Jacques de (le Loyal Serviteur). Très joyeuse, plaisante, et récréative histoire du gentil seigneur du Bayart. Ed. M. J. Roman. Paris, 1878.
Mallett, Michael. Mercenaries and Their Masters: Warfare in Renaissance Italy. London, 1974.
Mallett, Michael. “The Transformation of War, 1494–1530.” In Italy and the European Powers: The Impact of War, 1500–1530, ed. Christine Shaw, 321. Leiden, 2006.
Mansuelli, Guido A. “Il monumento commemorativo romano.” Bollettino del Centro di studi per la storia dell’architettura 12 (1958): 323.
Mérindol, Christian de. “Roi d’armes et poursuivants à la cour d’Anjou au temps du roi René.” Revue du Nord 88.366/67 (2006): 617–30.10.3917/rdn.366.0617
Meserve, Margaret. “News from Negroponte: Politics, Popular Opinion, and Information Exchange in the First Decade of the Italian Press.” Renaissance Quarterly 59.2 (2006): 440–80.10.1353/ren.2008.0312
Meyer, P. “Les dix-sept cent mille clochers de la France.” Romania 7 (1878): 104–06.
Molho, Anthony. Florentine Public Finances in the Early Renaissance, 1400–1433. Cambridge, MA, 1971.
Murray, Alexander. Reason and Society in the Middle Ages. Oxford, 1978.
Newhall, Richard Ager. Muster and Review: A Problem of English Military Administration, 1420–1440. Cambridge, MA, 1940.
Niccoli, Ottavia. Prophecy and People in Renaissance Italy. Princeton, 1990.
Niccoli, Ottavia. “I morti, la morte, le guerre d’Italia.” In Città in Guerra. Esperienze e riflessioni nel primo ‘500 — Bologna nelle “Guerre d’Italia, ed. Gian Maria Anselmi and Angela De Benedictis, 119–33. Bologna, 2008.
Oerter, Herbert L.Campaldino, 1289.” Speculum 43.3 (1968): 429–50.10.2307/2855837
Pade, Marianne. The Reception of Plutarch’s Lives in Fifteenth-Century Italy. 2 vols. Copenhagen, 2007.
Paré, Ambroise. Les Oevvres d’Ambroise Paré, Conseiller, et premier chirvrgien dv Roy. Paris, 1585.
Pastoureau, Michel. “Stratégies héraldiques et changements d’armoiries chez les magnats florentins du XIVe siècle.” Annales: ESC 43.5 (1988): 1241–56.10.3406/ahess.1988.283551
Pastoureau, Michel. Traité d’héraldique. Paris, 1993.
Perego, Giancarlo. La battaglia di Agnadello e i morti della Vittoria. Agnadello, 2002.
Pieri, Piero. Il rinascimento e la crisi militare italiana. Turin, 1952.
Plutarch, . Lives. Trans. Bernadotte Perrin. 11 vols. Cambridge, MA, 1954.
Poovey, Mary. A History of the Modern Fact: Problems of Knowledge in the Sciences of Wealth and Society. Chicago, 1998.10.7208/chicago/9780226675183.001.0001
Potter, David. Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, c. 1480–1560. Woodbridge, 2008.
Prince, A. E. “The Indenture System under Edward III.” In Historical Essays in Honour of James Tait, ed. J. G. Edwards, V. H. Galbraith, and E. F. Jacob, 283–97. Manchester, 1933.
Quadri, Giuseppe. La Madonna della Vittoria a ricordo del quarto centenario della Battaglia di Agnadello. Crema, 1909.
Questa sie listoria de tutti li homini famosi chi sono morti da cinquanta anni in qua nelle parte de italia & dele proue che fecino al mondo la morte glia uoluti per se tutti quanti. [Venice?], n.d., ca. 1484. Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milano, Triv. H 311/12.
Quintilian, . Institutio Oratoria. Trans. H. E. Butler. 4 vols. Cambridge, MA, 1943.
Ramos Aguirre, Mikel. “Hérauts et rois d’armes de Navarre. Insignes de l’office et signes d’identité.” Revue du Nord 88.366/67 (2006): 729–53.
Ramsay, J. H. “Chroniclers’ Estimates of Numbers and Official Records.” English Historical Review 18.72 (1903): 625–29.10.1093/ehr/XVIII.LXXII.625
Ramsay, J. H.The Strength of English Armies in the Middle Ages.” English Historical Review 29.114 (1914): 221–27.10.1093/ehr/XXIX.CXIV.221
Roberts, Les, Riyadh Lafta, Richard Garfield, Jamal Khudhairi, and Gilbert Burnham. “Mortality before and after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: Cluster Sample Survey.” Lancet 364 (2004): 1857–64.10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17441-2
Rogers, Clifford. “The Battle of Agincourt.” In The Hundred Years War (Part II): Different Vistas, ed. L. J. Andrew Villalon and Donald J. Kagay, 37–121. Leiden, 2008.
Rospocher, Massimo, and Salzberg, Rosa. “‘El vulgo zanza’: Spazi, pubblici, voci a Venezia durante le guerre d’Italia.” Storica 48 (2010): 83120.
Rossi, Girolamo. Storie Ravennati. Ed. and trans. Mario Pierpaoli. Ravenna, 1996.
Ingrid D., Rowland “Abacus and Humanism.” Renaissance Quarterly 48.4 (1995): 695727.
Salzberg, Rosa. “In the Mouths of Charlatans: Street Performers and the Dissemination of Pamphlets in Renaissance Italy.” Renaissance Studies 24.5 (2010): 638–53.10.1111/j.1477-4658.2010.00670.x
Sanudo, Marin. Diarii. 58 vols. Bologna, 1969–79.
Saul, Nigel. English Church Monuments in the Middle Ages: History and Representation. Oxford, 2009.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215980.001.0001
Schroeder, Horst. Der Topos der Nine Worthies in Literatur und bildender Kunst. Göttingen, 1971.
Solon, Paul. “Popular Response to Standing Military Forces in Fifteenth-Century France.” Studies in the Renaissance 19 (1972): 78–111.
Seyssel, Claude de. The Monarchy of France. Ed. Donald Kelley. Trans. J. H. Hexter. New Haven, 1981.
Spont, Alfred. “Marignan et l’organisation militaire sous François Ier.” Revue des questions historiques 22 (1899): 5977.
Stanesco, Michel. Jeux d’errance du chevalier mediéval. Leiden, 1988.
Stefani, Coppo di Marchionne. Cronaca fiorentina. Tome 30, part 1, fasciculus 116 of Rerum Italicarum Scriptores. Città di Castello, 1913.
Stermole, Krystina. Venetian Art and the War of the League of Cambrai (1509–17). PhD diss., Queen’s University, Kingston, 2007.
Taylor, Frederick Lewis. The Art of War in Italy, 1494–1529. Cambridge, 1921.
Thompson, Grahame. “Is Accounting Rhetorical? Methodology, Luca Pacioli, and Printing.” Accounting, Organizations and Society 16.5/6 (1991): 572–99.10.1016/0361-3682(91)90042-D
Tommasini, Oreste. La vita e gli scritti di Niccolò Machiavelli nella loro relazione col machiavellismo. 2 vols. Rome, 1883. Reprint, Naples, 1994–2003.
Trexler, Richard C. The Libro Cerimoniale of the Florentine Republic. Geneva, 1978.
Tutte le cose seguite in Lombardia dapoi chel signore Bartolomio [d’Alviano] gionto in campo: E come le ariuato il campo de Francesi… El numero e la quantita de tuta la gente sua. [Venice?], n.d., ca. 1515. British Library, C.20.c.22/53.
Vallet de Virille, A.Mandement adressé le 7 mars (1492) par le roi Charles VIII aux élus pour connaître le nombre des feux du royaume.” Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes 21 (1860): 455–57.10.3406/bec.1860.445712
Villani, Giovanni. Nuova Cronica. Ed. Giuseppe Porta. 3 vols. Parma, 1990–91.
Von Liebenau, Thomas, ed. “Ain neüwe Warhafftige gezittung der kriegssleüff, so zwischen der Aidgenossen vnd künig von Franckreich ergangen seind in dem MCCCCC. Vnd xv. Jare.” Anzeiger für Schweizerische Geschichte 1.1 (1870): 251–54.
Waley, Daniel. “Condotte and Condottieri in the Thirteenth Century.” Proceedings of the British Academy 61 (1975): 337–71.
Waley, Daniel. Siena and the Sienese in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge, 1991.10.1017/CBO9780511583865
Zug Tucci, Hannelore. “Istituzioni araldiche e pararaldiche nella vita Toscana del Duecento.” In Nobiltà e ceti dirigenti in Toscana nei secoli XI–XIII: Strutture e concetti, 6579. Florence, 1982.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed