The 10th european ALARA network (EAN) workshop took place in Prague (Czech Republic) in September 2006. This was the 10-year anniversary of the EAN, and unlike the previous workshops that addressed a particular ALARA topic, the aim of this workshop was to consider the implementation of the optimisation principle in all domains of activities (nuclear and conventional industry, medical sector, NORM industry). This principle is fundamental to radiation protection, and the workshop drew together key stakeholders to discuss its past, present and future status. The workshop was asked to consider the practical implementation of ALARA, and how this might be improved in the next 10 years. The objectives of the 10th EAN workshop were to review the past evolution of the ALARA concept, internationally, within the EU, and nationally, in terms of the practical impact on radiation protection; to examine the current status of the implementation of the ALARA principle; and to identify needs for future developments in the concept and implementation of optimisation. As with previous workshops, half the programme time was devoted to invited presentations, and half to working group discussions and report backs. After discussion, the output of these working groups was collated by the EAN co-ordinators, to produce seven formal recommendations to international organizations (IAEA, International Labour Organisation, European Commission), to EAN itself and to national authorities. These recommendations deal with justification of practices, holistic approach, ALARA culture, ALARA training, especially in the medical sector, ALARA focus through inspection and control, and stakeholder involvement. Individual presentations (papers and slides) are available to download from the EAN website (http://www.eu-alara.net).