Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Radiocarbon Dating of a Speleothem Record of Paleoclimate for Angkor, Cambodia

  • Quan Hua (a1), Duncan Cook (a2), Jens Fohlmeister (a3) (a4), Dan Penny (a5), Paul Bishop (a6) and Solomon Buckman (a7)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Abstract

We report the chronological construction for the top portion of a speleothem, PC1, from southern Cambodia with the aim of reconstructing a continuous high-resolution climate record covering the fluorescence and decline of the medieval Khmer kingdom and its capital at Angkor (~9th–15th centuries AD). Earlier attempts to date PC1 by the standard U-Th method proved unsuccessful. We have therefore dated this speleothem using radiocarbon. Fifty carbonate samples along the growth axis of PC1 were collected for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. Chronological reconstruction for PC1 was achieved using two different approaches described by Hua et al. (2012a) and Lechleitner et al. (2016a). Excellent concordance between the two age-depth models indicates that the top ~47 mm of PC1 grew during the last millennium with a growth hiatus during ~1250–1650 AD, resulting from a large change in measured 14C values at 34.4–35.2 mm depth. The timing of the growth hiatus covers the period of decades-long droughts during the 14th–16th centuries AD indicated in regional climate records.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: qhx@ansto.gov.au.

Footnotes

Hide All

Selected Papers from the 8th Radiocarbon & Archaeology Symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 27 June–1 July 2016

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Bajo, P, Borsato, A, Drysdale, R, Hua, Q, Frisia, S, Zanchetta, G, Hellstrom, J, Woodhead, J. 2017. Stalagmite carbon isotopes and dead carbon proportion (DCP) in a closed system situation: an interplay between sulphuric and carbonic acid dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 210:208227.
Beavan, N, Halcrow, S, McFadgen, B, Hamilton, D, Buckley, B, Sokha, T, Shewan, L, Sokha, O, Fallon, S, Miksic, J, Armstrong, R, O’Reilly, D, Domett, K, Chhem, KR. 2012. Radiocarbon dates from jar and coffin burials of the Cardamom Mountains reveal a previously unrecorded mortuary ritual in Cambodia’s late- to post-Angkor period (15th–17th centuries AD). Radiocarbon 54(1):122.
Beck, JW, Richards, DA, Edwards, RL, Silverman, BW, Smart, PL, Donahue, DJ, Hererra-Osterheld, S, Burr, GS, Calsoyas, L, Jull, AJT, Biddulph, D. 2001. Extremely large variations of atmospheric 14C concentration during the last glacial period. Science 292:24532458.
Berkelhammer, M, Sinha, A, Mudelsee, M, Cheng, HR, Edwards, RL, Cannariato, K. 2010. Persistent multidecadal power of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290:166172.
Blaauw, M, Christen, JA. 2011. Flexible paleoclimate age-depth models using an autoregressive gamma process. Bayesian Analysis 6:457474.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2008. Deposition models for chronological records. Quaternary Science Reviews 27:4260.
Bronk Ramsey, C, Lee, S. 2013. Recent and planned developments of the program OxCal. Radiocarbon 55:720730.
Buckley, BM, Anchukaitis, KJ, Penny, D, Fletcher, R, Cook, ER, Sano, M, Le, CN, Wichienkeeo, A, Ton That, M, Truong, MH. 2010. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia. The Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 107:67486752.
Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Shen, CC, Woodhead, J, Hellstrom, J, Wang, YJ, Kong, XG, Wang, XF. 2008. A new generation of Th-230 dating techniques: tests of precision and accuracy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72:A157A167.
Cook, ER, Anchukaitis, KJ, Buckley, BM, D’Arrigo, RD, Jacoby, GC, Wright, WE. 2010. Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium. Science 328:486489.
Fink, D, Hotchkis, M, Hua, Q, Jacobsen, G, Smith, AM, Zoppi, U, Child, D, Mifsud, C, van der Gaast, H, Williams, A, Williams, M. 2004. The ANTARES AMS Facility at ANSTO. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 223–224:109115.
Fohlmeister, J, Schröder-Ritzrau, A, Spötl, C, Frisia, S, Miorandi, R, Kromer, B, Mangini, A. 2010. The influences of hydrology on the radiogenic and stable carbon isotope composition of cave drip water, Grotta Di Ernesto (Italy). Radiocarbon 52(4):15291544.
Fohlmeister, J, Kromer, B, Mangini, A. 2011. The influence of soil organic matter age spectrum on the reconstruction of atmospheric 14C levels via stalagmites. Radiocarbon 53(1):99115.
Genty, D, Vokal, B, Obelic, B, Massault, M. 1998. Bomb 14C time history recorded in two modern stalagmites - Importance for soil organic matter dynamics and bomb 14C distribution over continents. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160:795809.
Genty, D, Massault, M. 1999. Carbon transfer dynamics from bomb-14C and δ13C time series of a laminated stalagmite from SW France – Modeling and comparison with other stalagmite records. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63:15371548.
Genty, D, Massault, M, Gilmour, M, Baker, A, Verheyden, S, Kepens, E. 1999. Calculation of past dead carbon proportion and variability by the comparison of AMS 14C and TIMS U/Th ages on two Holocene stalagmites. Radiocarbon 41(3):251270.
Genty, D, Baker, A, Massault, M, Proctor, C, Gilmour, M, Pons-Branchu, E, Hamelin, B. 2001. Dead carbon in stalagmites: carbonate bedrock palaeodissolution vs. ageing of soil organic matter: implications for 13C variations in speleothems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65:34433457.
Griffiths, ML, Fohlmeister, J, Drysdale, RN, Hua, Q, Johnson, KR, Hellstrom, JC, Gagan, MK, Zhao, J-x. 2012. Hydrological control on the dead-carbon content of a tropical Holocene speleothem. Quaternary Geochronology 14:8193.
Hall, T, Penny, D, Hendrickson, M, Cooke, C, Hua, Q. 2016. Iron and Fire: Geoarchaeological history of a Khmer peripheral center during the decline of the Angkorian Empire, Cambodia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 6:5363.
Hellstrom, J. 2003. Rapid and accurate U/Th dating using parallel ion-counting multicollector ICP-MS. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 18:13461351.
Hendrickson, M, Hua, Q, Pryce, TO. 2013. Using in-slag charcoals as an indicator of “terminal” iron production within the Angkorian period (10th–13th centuries AD) center of Preah Khan of Kompong Svay, Cambodia. Radiocarbon 55:3147.
Hendrickson, M, Leroy, S, Hua, Q, Kaseka, P, Vuthy, V. 2017. Smelting in the shadow of the Iron Mountain: Preliminary field investigation of the industrial landscape around Phnom Dek, Cambodia (9th to 20th centuries CE). Asian Perspectives 56:5591.
Hodge, E, McDonald, J, Fischer, M, Redwood, D, Hua, Q, Levchenko, V, Waring, C, Drysdale, R, Fink, D. 2011. Using the 14C bomb pulse to date young speleothems. Radiocarbon 53(2):345357.
Hoffmann, DL, Beck, JW, Richards, DA, Smart, PL, Singarayer, JS, Ketchmark, T, Hawkesworth, CJ. 2010. Towards radiocarbon calibration beyond 28 ka using speleothems from the Bahamas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 289:110.
Hogg, AG, Hua, Q, Blackwell, PG, Niu, M, Buck, CE, Guilderson, TP, Heaton, TJ, Palmer, JG, Reimer, PJ, Reimer, RW, Turney, CSM, Zimmerman, SRH. 2013. SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0-50,000 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18891903.
Hua, Q. 2009. Radiocarbon: a chronological tool for the recent past. Quaternary Geochronology 4:378390.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M. 2004. Review of tropospheric bomb radiocarbon data for carbon cycle modeled and age calibration purposes. Radiocarbon 46(3):12731298.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M. 2007. Influence of atmospheric circulation on regional 14CO2 differences. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D19102.
Hua, Q, Jacobsen, GE, Zoppi, U, Lawson, EM, Williams, AA, Smith, AM, McGann, MJ. 2001. Progress in radiocarbon target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre. Radiocarbon 43(2A):275282.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Zoppi, U. 2004a. Radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand during the prebomb period, AD 1938-1954. Radiocarbon 46(2):925932.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Zoppi, U, Fink, D, Watanasak, M, Jacobsen, GE. 2004b. Radiocarbon in tropical tree rings during the Little Ice Age. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 223–224:489494.
Hua, Q, McDonald, J, Redwood, D, Drysdale, R, Lee, S, Fallon, S, Hellstrom, J. 2012a. Robust chronological reconstruction for young speleothems using radiocarbon. Quaternary Geochronology 14:6780.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Levchenko, VA, D’Arrigo, RD, Buckley, BM, Smith, AM. 2012b. Monsoonal influence on Southern Hemisphere 14CO2 . Geophysical Research Letters 39:L19806.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Rakowski, AZ. 2013. Atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950-2010. Radiocarbon 55(4):20592072.
Johnson, KR, Hu, C, Belshaw, N, Henderson, G. 2006. Seasonal trace-element and stable-isotope variations in a Chinese speleothem: the potential for high resolution paleomonsoon reconstruction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 244:394407.
Kluge, T, Riechelmann, DFC, Wieser, M, Spötl, C, Sültenfuß, J, Schröder-Ritzrau, A, Niggemann, S, Aeschbach-Hertig, W. 2010. Dating cave drip water by tritium. Journal of Hydrology 394:396406.
Lechleitner, FA, Fohlmeister, J, McIntyre, C, Baldini, LM, Jamieson, RA, Hercman, H, Gasiorowski, M, Pawlak, J, Stefaniak, K, Socha, P, Eglinton, TI, Baldini, JUL. 2016a. A novel approach for construction of radiocarbon-based chronologies for speleothems. Quaternary Geochronology 35:5466.
Lechleitner, FA, Baldini, JUL, Breitenbach, SFM, Fohlmeister, J, McIntyre, C, Goswami, B, Jamieson, RA, van der Voort, TS, Prufer, K, Marwan, N, Culleton, BJ, Kennett, DJ, Asmerom, Y, Polyak, V, Eglinton, TI. 2016b. Hydrological and climatological controls on radiocarbon concentrations in a tropical stalagmite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 194:233252.
Leroy, S, Hendrickson, M, Delque-Kolic, E, Vega, E, Dillmann, P. 2015. First direct dating for the construction and modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia. PloS ONE 10(11):e0141052.
Levin, I, Hesshaimer, V. 2000. Radiocarbon – A unique tracer of global carbon cycle dynamics. Radiocarbon 42(1):6980.
Lieberman, V. 2009. Strange Parallels: Mainland Mirrors: Europe, Japan, China, South Asia, and the Islands: Southeast Asia in Global Context, C. 800-1830. Volume 2. Cambridge University Press.
Mattey, D, Lowry, D, Duffet, J, Fisher, R, Hodge, E, Frisia, S. 2008. A 53 year seasonally resolved oxygen and carbon isotope record from a modern Gibraltar speleothem: reconstructed drip water and relationship to local precipitation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 269:8095.
McCabe-Glynn, S, Johnson, KR, Strong, C, Berkelhammer, M, Sinha, A, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL. 2013. Variable North Pacific influence on drought in southwestern North America since AD 854. Nature Geoscience 6:617621.
Noronha, AL, Johnson, KR, Hu, C, Ruan, J, Southon, JR, Ferguson, JE. 2014. Assessing influences on speleothem dead carbon variability over the Holocene: Implications for speleothem-based radiocarbon calibration. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 394:2029.
Noronha, AL, Johnson, KR, Southon, JR, Hu, C, Ruan, J, McCabe-Glynn, S. 2015. Radiocarbon evidence for decomposition of aged organic matter in the vadose zone as the main source of speleothem carbon. Quaternary Science Reviews 127:3747.
Oster, JL, Montañez, IP, Guilderson, TP, Sharp, WD, Banner, JL. 2010. Modeling speleothem δ13C variability in a central Sierra Nevada cave using 14C and 87Sr/86Sr. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74:52285242.
Partin, J, Cobb, K, Adkins, J, Clark, B, Fernandez, D. 2007. Millennial-scale trends in west Pacific warm pool hydrology since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature 449:452455.
Penny, D. 2012. China and Southeast Asia. In: Metcalfe SE, Nash DJ, editors. Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics. Oxford: Wiley, Blackwell Publishing. p 207235.
Pryce, TO, Hendrickson, M, Phon, K, Chan, S, Charlton, MF, Leroy, S, Dillmann, P, Hua, Q. 2014. The Iron Kuay of Cambodia: tracing the role of peripheral populations in Angkorian to Colonial Cambodia via a 1200 year old industrial landscape. Journal of Archaeological Science 47:142163.
Rudzka, D, McDermott, F, Baldini, LM, Fleitmann, D, Moreno, A, Stoll, H. 2011. The coupled δ13C-radiocarbon systematics of three Late Glacial/early Holocene speleothems; insights into soil and cave processes at climatic transitions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75:43214339.
Sinha, A, Cannariato, KG, Stott, LD, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Yadava, MG, Ramesh, R, Singh, IB. 2007. A 900-year (600 to 1500 AD) record of the Indian summer monsoon precipitation from the core monsoon zone of India. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L16707.
Sinha, A, Stott, L, Berkelhammer, M, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Buckley, B, Aldenderfer, M, Mudelsee, M. 2011. A global context for megadroughts in monsoon Asia during the past millennium. Quaternary Science Reviews 30:4762.
Smith, CL, Fairchild, IJ, Spötl, C, Frisia, S, Borsato, A, Moreton, SG, Wynn, PM. 2009. Chronology building using objective identification of annual signals in trace element profiles of stalagmites. Quaternary Geochronology 4:1121.
Southon, J, Noronha, AL, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Wang, Y. 2012. A high-resolution record of atmospheric 14C based on Hulu Cave speleothem H82. Quaternary Science Reviews 33:3241.
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):353363.
Zhang, P, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Chen, F, Wang, Y, Yang, X, Liu, J, Tan, M, Wang, X, Liu, J, An, C, Dai, Z, Zhou, J, Zhang, D, Jia, J, Jin, L, Johnson, KR. 2008. A test of climate, sun, and culture relationships from an 1810-year Chinese cave record. Science 322:940942.

Keywords

Radiocarbon Dating of a Speleothem Record of Paleoclimate for Angkor, Cambodia

  • Quan Hua (a1), Duncan Cook (a2), Jens Fohlmeister (a3) (a4), Dan Penny (a5), Paul Bishop (a6) and Solomon Buckman (a7)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

A correction has been issued for this article: