Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Developments in Radiocarbon Technologies: From the Libby Counter to Compound-Specific AMS Analyses

  • Pavel P Povinec (a1), A E Litherland (a2) and Karl F von Reden (a3)

Abstract

We review developments in radiocarbon measuring techniques from the Libby counter through proportional gas counters and liquid scintillation spectrometers to the more recent developments of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), followed by a coupling of gas chromatography with AMS for compound-specific 14C analyses. While during the first 60 yr of 14C measurements beta counting, specifically gas counting, was the dominant technique, in the future of 14C science AMS will be the dominant technology.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Developments in Radiocarbon Technologies: From the Libby Counter to Compound-Specific AMS Analyses
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Developments in Radiocarbon Technologies: From the Libby Counter to Compound-Specific AMS Analyses
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Developments in Radiocarbon Technologies: From the Libby Counter to Compound-Specific AMS Analyses
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Email: Povinec@fmph.uniba.sk

References

Hide All
Aberth, W, Peterson, JR. 1967. Characteristics of a low energy duoplasmatron negative ion source. Review of Scientific Instruments 38:745–8.
Alimonti G, Borexino collaboration. 1998. Measurement of the 14C abundance in a low-background liquid scintillator. Physics Letters B 422(1–4):349–58.
Aller, RC, Blair, NE. 2004. Early diagenetic remineralization of sedimentary organic C in the Gulf of Papua deltaic complex (Papua New Guinea): net loss of terrestrial C and diagenetic fractionation of C isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(8):1815–25.
Aller, RC, Blair, NE. 2006. Carbon remineralization in the Amazon-Guianas mobile mudbelt: a sedimentary incinerator. Continental Shelf Research 26:2241–59.
Alvarez, LW, Cornog, R. 1939a. He3 in helium. Physical Review 56:379.
Alvarez, LW, Cornog, R. 1939b. Helium and hydrogen of mass 3. Physical Review 56:613.
Alvarez, LW. 1951. Energy doubling in dc accelerators. Review of Scientific Instruments 22:705–6.
Alvarez, LW. 1981. The early days of accelerator mass spectrometry. In: Henning, W, Kutschera, W, Smitherand, R, Yntema, JL, editors. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on AMS. Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, ANL/PHY–81-1. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-2.pdf.
Anbar, M. 1975. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Carbon 14. US Patent 3,885,155.
Anbar, M. 1978. The limitations of mass spectrometric radiocarbon dating using CN ions. In: Gove, HE, editor. Proceedings of the First Conference on Radiocarbon Dating with Accelerators. Rochester: University of Rochester. p 152–6. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-1.pdf.
Anderson, EC, Libby, WF. 1951. World-wide distribution of natural radiocarbon. Physical Review 81:64–9.
Anderson, EC, Libby, WF, Weinhouse, S, Reid, AF, Kirschenbaum, AD, Grosse, AV. 1947. Radiocarbon from cosmic radiation. Science 105(2735):576–7.
Anderson, EC, Arnold, JR, Libby, WF. 1951. Measurements of low level radiocarbon. Review of Scientific Instruments 22:225–30.
Arnold, JR. 1954. Scintillation counting of radiocarbon: I. The counting method. Science 119(3083):155–7.
Arnold, JR. 1987. Decay counting in the age of AMS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 29(1–2):424–6.
Arnold, JR, Libby, WF. 1949. Age determination by radiocarbon content: checks with samples of known age. Science 110(2869):678–80.
Arpesella C, Borexino collaboration. 2008. Direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux with 192 days of Borexino data. Physical Review Letters 101:091302.
Asi, A. 2001. Ion source modeling with Lorentz-2D. Available at http://www.integratedsoft.com/Papers/research/ICIS2001.pdf.
Audric, BN, Long, JVP. 1954. Use of dissolved acetylene in liquid scintillation counters for the measurement of carbon-14 of low specific activity. Nature 173(4412):992–3.
Baker, PA, Rigsby, CA, Seltzer, GO, Fritz, SC, Lowenstein, TK, Bacher, NP, Veliz, C. 2001a. Tropical climate changes at millennial and orbital timescales on the Bolivian Altiplano. Nature 409(6821):698701.
Baker, PA, Seltzer, GO, Fritz, SC, Dunbar, RB, Grove, MJ, Tapia, PM, Cross, SL, Rowe, HD, Broda, JP. 2001b. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years. Science 291(5504):640–3.
Ballard, RD, Coleman, DF, Rosenberg, GD. 2000. Further evidence of abrupt Holocene drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology 170(3–4):253–61.
Bandura, DR, Baranov, VI, Litherland, AE, Tanner, SD. 2006. Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions for resolution of atomic isobars: AMS and ICP-MS perspectives. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 255–256:312–27.
Bard, E, Ménot-Combes, G, Rostek, F. 2004a. Present status of radiocarbon calibration and comparison records based on Polynesian corals and Iberian Margin sediments. Radiocarbon 46(3):1189–202.
Bard, E, Rostek, F, Ménot-Combes, G. 2004b. Paleoclimate: a better radiocarbon clock. Science 303(5655):178–9.
Barendsen, GW. 1957. Radiocarbon dating with liquid CO2 as diluent in a scintillation solution. Review of Scientific Instruments 28:430–2.
Bell, CG, Hayes, FN, editors. 1958. Liquid Scintillation Counting. London: Pergamon Press.
Bennett, CL, Beukens, RP, Clover, MR, Elmore, D, Gove, HE, Kilius, L, Litherland, AE, Purser, KH. 1978. Radiocarbon dating with electrostatic accelerators: dating of milligram samples. Science 201(4353):345–7.
Bennett, WH. 1940. High Voltage Vacuum Tube. US Patent No. 2,206,558.
Berger, R, Suess, HE, editors. 1979. Radiocarbon Dating. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference. Los Angeles and La Jolla 1976. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Berkovits, D, Boaretto, E, Hollos, G, Kutschera, W, Naaman, R, Paul, M, Vager, Z. 1989. Selective suppression of negative ions by lasers. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 281(3):663–6.
Bertsche, KJ, Karadi, CA, Muller, RA, Paulson, GC. 1990. Detection of radiocarbon in the cyclotrino. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 52(3–4):398404.
Beukens, RP. 1992. Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry: background, precision and accuracy. In: Taylor, RE, Long, A, Kra, RS, editors. Radiocarbon After Four Decades. An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York: Springer Verlag. p 230–9.
Beukens, RP. 1993. Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry: background and contamination. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 79(1–4):620–3.
Beukens, RP, Gove, HE, Litherland, AE, Kieser, WE, Zhao, X-L. 2004. The old carbon project: how old is old? Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 223–224:333–8.
Biondi, F, Strachan, SDJ, Mensing, S, Piovesan, G. 2007. Radiocarbon analysis confirms the annual nature of sagebrush growth rings. Radiocarbon 49(3):1231–40.
Blackett, PMS, Occhialini, GPS. 1933. Some photographs of the tracks of penetrating radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 139(839):699726.
Blair, NE, Leithold, EL, Ford, ST, Peeler, KA, Holmes, JC, Perkey, DW. 2003. The persistence of memory: the fate of ancient sedimentary organic carbon in a modern sedimentary system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(1):6373.
Bond, G, Kromer, B, Beer, J, Muscheler, R, Evans, MN, Showers, W, Hoffmann, S, Lotti-Bond, R, Hajdas, I, Bonani, G. 2001. Persistent solar influence on north Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Science 294(5549):2130–6.
Bonner, TW, Brubaker, WM. 1936. The disintegration of nitrogen by neutrons. Physical Review 49:223–9.
Brannon, HR, Taggart, MS Jr, Williams, M. 1955. Proportional counting of carbon dioxide for radiocarbon dating. Review of Scientific Instruments 26:269–73.
Broecker, WS, Tucek, CS, Olson, EA. 1959. Radio-carbon analysis of oceanic CO2 . International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 7(1):110.
Broecker, WS, Sutherland, S, Smethie, W, Peng, T-H, Ostlund, G. 1995. Oceanic radiocarbon: separation of the natural and bomb components. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9(2):263–88.
Bromley, DA, editor. 1974. Large electrostatic accelerators. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 122:1285.
Brooks, FD. 1958. In: Bell, CG, Hayes, FN, editors. Liquid Scintillation Counting. London: Pergamon. p 268.
Burcham, WE, Goldhaber, M. 1936. The disintegration of nitrogen by slow neutrons. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 32(4):632–6.
Burchuladze, AA, Pagava, SV, Povinec, P, Togonidze, GI, Usačev, S. 1980. Radiocarbon variations with the 11-year solar cycle during the last century. Nature 287(5780):320–2.
Burke, WH Jr, Meinschein, WG. 1955. C14 dating with a methane proportional counter. Review of Scientific Instruments 26:1137–40.
Bush, MB, Silman, MR, Urrego, DH. 2004. 48,000 years of climate and forest change in a biodiversity hot spot. Science 303(5659):827–9.
Buynevich, IV, FitzGerald, DM, Goble, RJ. 2007. A 1500 yr record of North Atlantic storm activity based on optically dated relict beach scarps. Geology 35(6):543–6.
Çağatay, MN, Görür, N, Polonia, A, Demirbağ, E, Saknç, M, Cormier, M-H, Capotondi, L, McHugh, C, Emre, Ö, Eriş, K. 2003. Sea-level changes and depositional environments in the İzmir Gulf, eastern Marmara Sea, during the late glacial-Holocene period. Marine Geology 202(3–4):159–73.
Came, RE, Oppo, DW, Curry, WB. 2003. Atlantic Ocean circulation during the Younger Dryas: insights from a new Cd/Ca record from the western subtropical South Atlantic. Paleoceanography 18(4):1086, doi: 10.1029/2003PA000888.
Came, RE, Oppo, DW, Curry, WB, Lynch-Stieglitz, J. 2008. Deglacial variability in the surface return flow of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Paleoceanography 23, PA1217, doi: 10.1029/2007PA001450.
Chapman, K, editor. 1972. Proceedings of the Symposium of North East Accelerator Personnel. Tallahassee: Florida State University. (See particularly p 100–4.)
Charalambus, S, Goebel, K. 1963. Low level proportional counter for tritium. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 25:109–17.
Chen, M, Lu, X, Li, D, Liu, Y, Zhou, W, Chen, G, Shen, L, Xu, S, Zhang, Y. 2000. Minicyclotron (SMCAMS)-based accelerator mass spectrometry and real 14C measurements. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 172(1–4):193200.
Cohen, AL, Hart, SR. 2004. Deglacial sea surface temperatures of the western tropical Pacific: a new look at old coral. Paleoceanography 19, PA4031, doi: 10.1029/2004PA001084.
Collon, P, Kutschera, W, Loosli, HH, Lehmann, BE, Purtschert, R, Love, A, Sampson, L, Anthony, D, Cole, D, Davids, B, Morrisey, DJ, Sherrill, BM, Steiner, M, Pardo, RC, Paul, M. 2000. 81Kr in the Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a new method for dating very old groundwater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 182(1):103–13.
Crathorn, AR. 1953. Use of an acetylene-filled counter for natural radiocarbon. Nature 172(4379):632–3.
Curran, SC, Angus, J, Cockroft, AL. 1949. Investigation of soft radiations by proportional counters. I. Philosophical Magazine 40:3652.
Currie, LA, Noakes, JE, Breiter, DN. 1978. Measurement of small radiocarbon samples: power of alternative methods for tracing atmospheric hydrocarbons. In: Berger, R, Suess, HE, editors. Radiocarbon Dating. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference Los Angeles and La Jolla, 1976. Berkeley: University of California Press. p 158–75.
Currie, LA, Gerlach, RW, Klouda, GA, Ruegg, FC, Tompkins, GB. 1983. Miniature signals and miniature counters: accuracy assurance via microprocessors and multiparameter control techniques. Radiocarbon 25(2):553–64.
Damon, PE, Long, A, Grey, DC. 1966. Fluctuation of atmospheric C14 during the last six millennia. Journal of Geophysical Research 71(4):1055–63.
Davis, R Jr, Harmer, DS, Hoffman, KC. 1968. Search for neutrinos from the Sun. Physical Review Letters 20(21):1205–9.
de Vries, H. 1956. The contribution of neutrons to the background of counters used for 14C age measurements. Nuclear Physics 1(6):477–9.
de Vries, H, Barendsen, GW. 1952. A new technique for the measurement of age by radiocarbon. Physica 18:652–9.
de Vries, H, Barendsen, GW. 1953. Radiocarbon dating by a proportional counter filled with carbon dioxide. Physica 19:9871003.
Donnelly, JP, Woodruff, JD. 2007. Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Niño and the West African monsoon. Nature 447(7143):465–8.
Donnelly, JP, Butler, J, Roll, S, Wengren, M, Webb, T III. 2004a. A backbarrier overwash record of intense storms from Brigantine, New Jersey. Marine Geology 210(1–4):107–21.
Donnelly, JP, Cleary, P, Newby, P, Ettinger, R. 2004b. Coupling instrumental and geological records of sea-level change: evidence from southern New England of an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in the late 19th century. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L05203, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018933.
Drenzek, NJ, Montluçon, DB, Yunker, MB, Macdonald, RW, Eglinton, TI. 2007. Constraints on the origin of sedimentary organic carbon in the Beaufort Sea from coupled molecular 13C and 14C measurements. Marine Chemistry 103(1–2):146–62.
Drever, RWP, Moljk, A, Curran, SC. 1957. A proportional counter system with small wall effect. Nuclear Instruments 1:41–5.
Eglinton, TI, Benitez-Nelson, BC, Pearson, A, McNichol, AP, Bauer, JE, Druffel, ERM. 1997. Variability in radiocarbon ages of individual organic compounds from marine sediments. Science 277(5327):796–9.
Elmore, D, Kubik, PW, Tubbs, LE, Gove, HE, Teng, R, Hemmick, T, Chrunyk, B, Conard, N. 1984. The Rochester tandem accelerator mass spectrometer program. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 5(2):109–16.
Engelkemeir, AG, Hamill, WH, Inghram, MG, Libby, WF. 1949. The half-life of radiocarbon (14C). Physical Review 75:1825–33.
Eriş, KK, Ryan, WBF, Çağatay, MN, Sancar, U, Lericolais, G, Ménot, G, Bard, E. 2007. The timing and evolution of the post-glacial transgression across the Sea of Marmara shelf south of Istanbul. Marine Geology 243(1–4):5776.
Fallon, SJ, Guilderson, TP, Brown, TA. 2007. CAMS/LLNL ion source efficiency revisited. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):106–10.
Faltings, V. 1952. Die Messung natürlicher 14C-Aktivitäten in proportionalzähler. Naturwissenschaften 39:378–9. In German.
Fergusson, GJ. 1955. Radiocarbon dating system. Nucleonics 13:1823.
Fifield, LK. 2000. Advances in AMS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 172(1–4):134–43.
Forstner, O, Andersson, P, Diehl, C, Golser, R, Hanstorp, D, Kutschera, W, Lindahl, A, Priller, A, Steier, P, Wallner, A. 2008. Isobar suppression in AMS using laser photodetachment. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266(19–20):4565–8.
Geiger, H, Müller, W. 1929. Technische Bemerkungen zum Elektronenzäherohr. Zeitschrift für Physik 30:489. In German.
Gerlach, D, Griffin, V, Kim, S-W, Long, P, McNichol, A, Percy, D, Schneider, R, von Reden, K, Zondervan, A. 2002. Witnesses to the first 14C events from a microwave gas ion source, recorded with the NOSAMS AMS gas detector (18 January 2002).
Geyh, MA. 1967. Experience gathered in the construction of low-level counters. In: Radioactive Dating and Methods of Low-Level Counting. Vienna: IAEA. p 575–91.
Giosan, L, Donnelly, JP, Constantinescu, S, Filip, F, Ovejanu, I, Vespremeanu-Stroe, A, Vespremeanu, E, Duller, GAT. 2006. Young Danube delta documents stable Black Sea level since the middle Holocene: morphodynamic, paleogeographic, and archaeological implications. Geology 34(9):757–60.
Gnaser, H. 1997. Formation of metastable N2 and CO anions in sputtering. Physical Review A 56(4):R251821.
Gnaser, H. 2008. Isotopic fractionation of sputtered anions: C and C–2 . Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266(1):3743.
Gove, HE. 1999. From Hiroshima to the Iceman: The Development and Applications of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing. 226 p.
Gregory, ST, Shea, D, Guthrie-Nichols, E. 2005. Impact of vegetation on sedimentary organic matter composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation. Environmental Science & Technology 39(14):5285–92.
Grootes, PM. 1977. Enrichment of radiocarbon for dating samples up to 75,000 years. In: Povinec, P, Usačev, S, editors. Low-Radioactivity Measurements and Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference, High Tatras, 1975. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatestvo. p 93–7.
Grottoli, AG, Gille, ST, Druffel, ERM, Dunbar, RB. 2003. Decadal timescale shift in the 14C record of a central equatorial Pacific coral. Radiocarbon 45(1):91–9.
Hall, ET, Hedges, REM, White, NR, Hyder, HR, Sinclair, D. 1978. Plans for Van de Graaff mass spectrometry and laser enrichment of 14C at Oxford. In: Gove, HE, editor. Proceedings of the First Conference on Radiocarbon Dating with Accelerators. Rochester: University of Rochester. p 257–65. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-1.pdf.
Han, BX, von Reden, KF, Roberts, ML, Schneider, RJ, Hayes, JM, Jenkins, WJ. 2007. Electromagnetic field modeling and ion optics calculations for a continuous-flow AMS system. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):111–7.
Harbottle, G, Sayre, EV, Stoenner, RW. 1979. Carbon-14 dating of small samples by proportional counting. Science 206(4419):683–5.
Hellborg, R, editor. 2005. Electrostatic Accelerators: Fundamentals and Applications. Berlin: Springer. 620 p.
Henning, W. 1987. Accelerator mass spectrometry of the heavy elements: 36Cl to 205Pb. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London A 323(1569):8799.
Hesshaimer, V, Heimann, M, Levin, I. 1994. Radiocarbon evidence for a smaller oceanic carbon dioxide sink than previously believed. Nature 370(6486):201–3.
Hogg, A, Polach, H, Robertson, S, Noakes, J. 1991. Application of high purity synthetic quartz vials to liquid scintillation low-level 14C counting of benzene. In: Ross, H, Noakes, JE, Spaulding, JD, editors. Liquid Scintillation Counting and Organic Scintillators. Chelsea: Lewis Publishers. p 123–31.
Horrocks, DL. 1974. Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting. New York: Academic Press. 346 p.
Houtermans, FG, Oeschger, H. 1955. Proportionszählrohr zur Messung schwacher Aktivitäten weicher -Strahlung. Helvetica Physica Acta 28:464–6. In German.
Hut, G, Keyser, J, Wijma, S. 1983. A multiple proportional 14C counter system for milligram-sized samples. 1983. Radiocarbon 25(2):547–52.
Hwang, J, Druffel, ERM. 2003. Lipid-like material as the source of the uncharacterized organic carbon in the ocean? Science 299(5608):881–4.
Ishikawa, J. 1995. Negative ion sources. In: Wolf, B, editor. Handbook of Ion Sources. Chapter 2, section 16. New York: CRC Press. p 289312.
Ivanova, EV, Murdmaa, IO, Chepalyga, AL, Cronin, TM, Pasechnik, IV, Levchenko, OV, Howe, SS, Manushkina, AV, Platonova, EA. 2007. Holocene sea-level oscillations and environmental changes on the eastern Black Sea shelf. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 246(2–4):228–59.
Jones, GA, McNichol, AP, von Reden, KF, Schneider, RJ. 1990. The National Ocean Sciences AMS facility at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 52(3–4):278–84.
Jones, GA, Gagnon, AR, von Reden, KF, McNichol, AP, Schneider, RJ. 1994. High-precision AMS radiocarbon measurements of central Arctic-Ocean sea waters. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 92(1–4):426–30.
Jull, AJT, Burr, GS, Beck, JW, Hodgins, GWL, Biddulph, DL, McHargue, LR, Lange, TE. 2008. Accelerator mass spectrometry of long-lived light radionuclides In: Povinec, P, editor. Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p 241–62.
Kalin, RM, Devine, JM, Long, A. 1991. Performance of small quartz vials in a low-level, high resolution liquid scintillation spectrometer. In: Ross, H, Noakes, JE, Spaulding, JD, editors. Liquid Scintillation Counting and Organic Scintillators. Chelsea: Lewis Publishers. p 471–9.
Kallmann, HI, Kuhn, E. 1940. Device for Generating a Beam of Ions of High Velocity. US Patent No. 2,213,140.
Keigwin, LD. 1996. The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea. Science 274(5292):1504–8.
Keigwin, LD. 2004. Radiocarbon and stable isotope constraints on Last Glacial Maximum and Younger Dryas ventilation in the western North Atlantic. Paleoceanography 19(4): PA4012, doi: 10.1029/2004PA001029.
Keigwin, LD, Boyle, EA. 2008. Did North Atlantic overturning halt 17,000 years ago? Paleoceanography 23(1): PA1101, doi: 10.1029/2007PA001500.
Keigwin, LD, Pickart, RS. 1999. Slope water current over the Laurentian fan on interannual to millennial time scales. Science 286(5439):520–3.
Keigwin, LD, Sachs, JP, Rosenthal, Y, Boyle, EA. 2005. The 8200 year BP event in the slope water system, western subpolar North Atlantic. Paleoceanography 20(2): PA2003, doi: 10.1029/2004PA001074.
Keigwin, LD, Donnelly, JP, Cook, MS, Driscoll, NW, Brigham-Grette, J. 2006. Rapid sea-level rise and Holocene climate in the Chukchi Sea. Geology 34(10):861–4.
Key, R. 1996. WOCE Pacific Ocean radiocarbon program. Radiocarbon 38(3):415–23.
Key, RM, Quay, PD, Jones, G, McNichol, AP, von Reden, KF, Schneider, RJ. 1996. WOCE AMS radiocarbon I: Pacific Ocean results (P6, P16 and P17). Radiocarbon 38(3):425518.
Key, RM, Quay, PD, Schlosser, P, McNichol, AP, von Reden, KF, Schneider, RJ, Elder, K, Stuiver, M, Ostlund, H. 2002. WOCE radiocarbon IV: Pacific Ocean results; P10, P13N, P14C, P18, P19 & S4P. Radiocarbon 44(1):239392.
Key, RM, Kozyr, A, Sabine, CL, Lee, K, Wanninkhof, R, Bullister, JL, Feely, RA, Millero, FJ, Mordy, C, Peng, TH. 2004. A global ocean carbon climatology: results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18(4): GB4031, doi: 10.1029/2004GB002247.
Kilius, LR, Rucklidge, JC, Litherland, AE. 1987. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 129I at IsoTrace. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B 29(1–2):72–6.
Kim, S-W, Schneider, RJ, von Reden, KF, Hayes, JM, Wills, JSC. 2002. Test of negative ion beams from a microwave ion source with a charge exchange canal for accelerator mass spectrometry applications. Review of Scientific Instruments 73:846–8.
Kitagawa, H, van der Plicht, J. 1998. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration to 45,000 yr B.P.: late glacial fluctuations and cosmogenic isotope production. Science 279(5354):1187–90.
Kubik, PW, Elmore, D. 1989. AMS of 41Ca using the CaF3 negative ion. Radiocarbon 31(3):324–6.
Kuehner, JA, Almqvist, E, Bromley, DA. 1960. In: Bromley, DA, Vogt, EW, editors. Proceedings of the 1960 International Conference on Nuclear Structure. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p 280.
Kurie, FND. 1934. A new mode of disintegration induced by neutrons. Physical Review 45:904–5.
Kutschera, W. 2005. Progress in isotope analysis of at ultra-trace level by AMS. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 242(2–3):145–60.
Lal, D. 1965. In: Chatters, RM, editor. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Radiocarbon and Tritium Dating. Pullman, Washington, 7–11 June 1965 (Conf. 650652). p 487.
Laney, BH. 1971. Electronic rejection of optical crosstalk in a twin phototube scintillation counter. In: Organic Scintillator and Liquid Scintillation Counting. New York: Academic Press. p 9911003.
Lee, HW, Galindo-Uribarri, A, Chang, KH, Kilius, LR, Litherland, AE. 1984. The 12CH2 2+ molecule and radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 5(2):208–10.
Libby, WF. 1934. Radioactivity of neodymium and samarium. Physical Review 46:196204.
Libby, WF. 1946. Atmospheric helium three and radiocarbon from cosmic radiation. Physical Review 69:671–2.
Libby, WF. 1955. Radiocarbon Dating. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 175 p.
Libby, WF. 1967. History of radiocarbon dating. In: Radioactive Dating and Methods of Low-Level Counting. Proceedings of the Symposium Vienna, 1967. Vienna: IAEA. p 326.
Libby, WF, Lee, DD. 1939. Energies of soft beta-radiations of rubidium and other bodies. Method for their determination. Physical Review 55:245–51.
Litherland, AE. 1962. Negative Ion Production Studies. Progress Report of the Physics Division. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, PR-P-56, p 2.7.
Litherland, AE. 1978. Radiocarbon dating with accelerators. In: Gove, HE, editor. Proceedings of the First Conference on Radiocarbon Dating with Accelerators. Rochester: University of Rochester. p 70113. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-1.pdf.
Litherland, AE. 1984. Accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 5(2):100–8.
Litherland, AE, Kilius, LR. 1990. A recombinator for radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 52(3–4):375–7.
Litherland, AE, Kuehner, JA, Gove, HE, Clark, MA, Almqvist, E. 1961. Rotational bands in 20Ne. Physical Review Letters 7:98100.
Litherland, AE, Gove, HE, Beukens, RP, Zhao, X-L, Kieser, WE. 2005. Low-level 14C measurements and accelerator mass spectrometry. In: Cleveland, B, Ford, R, Chen, M, editors. Topical Workshop on Low Radioactivity Techniques, Conference Proceedings of the AIP. CP 785. p 4856. (Note: in the published paper there is a typographical error in line 15 of the introduction. The exponent should be 18 not 16.).
Litherland, AE, Tomski, I, Zhao, X-L, Cousins, LM, Doupé, JP, Javahery, G, Kieser, WE. 2007. Isobar separation at very low energy for AMS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):230–5.
Long, A, Kalin, RM. 1992. Radiocarbon dating in the 50,000 to 65,000 year range without isotopic enrichment. In: Povinec, P, editor. Rare Nuclear Processes. Proceedings of the 14th Europhysics Conference on Nuclear Physics. Bratislava: Veda Publishers. p 256–63.
Loosli, HH, Oeschger, H. 1982. Low-level gas proportional counting in an underground laboratory. In: Povinec, P, editor. Low-Level Counting. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference Low Radioactivities High Tatras, 1980. Bratislava: Veda Publishers. Volume 1. p 117–25.
Loosli, HH, Möll, M, Oeschger, H, Scotterer, U. 1986. Ten years low-level counting in the underground laboratory in Bern, Switzerland. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 17(5–6):402–5.
Lu, Z-T, Wendt, KDA. 2003. Laser-based methods for ultrasensitive trace-isotope analyses. Review of Scientific Instruments 74:1169–79.
Lynch-Stieglitz, J, Adkins, JF, Curry, WB, Dokken, T, Hall, IR, Herguera, JC, Hirschi, J-M, Ivanova, EV, Kissel, C, Marchal, O, Marchitto, TM, McCave, IN, McManus, JF, Mulitza, S, Ninnemann, U, Peeters, F, Yu, E-F, Zahn, R. 2007. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial maximum. Science 316(5821):66–9.
Mandalakis, M, Gustafsson, Ö, Reddy, CM, Xu, L. 2004. Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area. Environmental Science & Technology 38(20):5344–9.
Mäntynen, P, Aikää, O, Kankainen, T, Kaihola, L. 1987. Application of pulse-shape discrimination to improve the precision of the carbon-14 gas-proportional-counting method. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 38(10):869–73.
Marrodán Undagoitia, T, von Feilitzsch, F, Göger-Neff, M, Hochmuth, KA, Oberauer, L, Potzel, W, Wurm, M. 2006. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 57:283–9.
Matsumoto, K. 2007. Radiocarbon-based circulation age of the world oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(C9): C09004.
McCormac, FG. 1992. Liquid scintillation counter characterization, optimization and benzene purity correction. Radiocarbon 34(1):3745.
McIntyre, C, Sylva, S. 2008. Gas chromatograph-combustion system and method for mass spectrometry. Provisional Patent US 61/197,047.
McManus, JF, Francois, R, Gherardi, J-M, Keigwin, LD, Brown-Leger, S. 2004. Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature 428(6985):834–7.
McNichol, AP, Schneider, RJ, von Reden, KF, Gagnon, AR, Elder, KL, Key, RM, Quay, PD. 2000. Ten years after the WOCE AMS radiocarbon program. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 172(1–4):479–84.
Middleton, R, Adams, CT. 1974. A close to universal negative ion source. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 118(2):329–36.
Middleton, R, Klein, J. 1999. Production of metastable negative ions in a caesium sputter source: verification of the existence of N2 and CO . Physical Review A 60(5):3786–99.
Mollenhauer, G, Eglinton, TI, Ohkouchi, N, Schneider, RR, Müller, PJ, Grootes, PM, Rullkötter, J. 2003. Asynchronous alkenone and foraminifera records from the Benguela Upwelling System. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(12):2157–71.
Mollenhauer, G, Kienast, M, Lamy, F, Meggers, H, Schneider, R, Hayes, JM, Eglinton, TI. 2005a. An evaluation of 14C age relationships between co-occurring foraminifera, alkenones, and total organic carbon in continental margin sediments. Paleoceanography 20(1): PA1016, doi: 10.1029/2004PA001103.
Mollenhauer, G, Montluçon, D, Eglinton, TI. 2005b. Radiocarbon dating of alkenones from marine sediments: II. Assessment of carbon process blanks. Radiocarbon 47(3):413–24.
Mollenhauer, G, McManus, JF, Benthien, A, Müller, PJ, Eglinton, TI. 2006. Rapid lateral particle transport in the Argentine Basin: molecular 14C and 230Thxs evidence. Deep-Sea Research Part I 53(7):1224–43.
Mook, WG. 1983. International comparison of proportional gas counters for 14C activity measurements. Radiocarbon 25(2):475–84.
Mościcki, W, Zastawny, A. 1977. New proportional counter assembly in Gliwice 14C laboratory. In: Povinec, P, Usačev, S, editors. Low-Radioactivity Measurements and Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference, High Tatras, 1975. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatestvo. p 91–2.
Muller, RA. 1977. Radioisotope dating with a cyclotron. Science 196(4289):489–94.
Muller, RA. 1978. Radioisotope dating with the LBL 88” Cyclotron. In: Gove, HE, editor. Proceedings of the First Conference on Radiocarbon Dating with Accelerators. Rochester: University of Rochester. p 33–7. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-1.pdf.
Muller, RA, Alvarez, LW, Holley, WR, Stephenson, ER. 1977. Quarks with unit charge: a search for anomalous hydrogen. Science 196(4289):521–52.
Muller, RA, Tans, PP, Mast, TS, Welch, JJ. 1981. Mass spectrometry with a very small cyclotron. In: Henning, W, Kutschera, W, Smitherand, R, Yntema, JL, editors. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on AMS. Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, ANL/PHY–81-1. p 342–5. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-2.pdf.
Münnich, KO, Vogel, JC. 1958. Durch Atomexplosionen erzeugter Radiokohlenstoff in der Atmosphäre. Naturwissenschaften 45(14):327–9. In German.
Murnick, DE, Dogru, O, Ilkmen, E. 2008. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy. An analytical technique for 14C analysis with subattomole sensitivity. Analytical Chemistry 80(13):4820–4.
Naegler, T, Levin, I. 2006. Closing the global radiocarbon budget 1945–2005. Journal of Geophysical Research 111(D12): doi: 10.1029/2005JD006758.
Nelson, DE, Korteling, RG, Stott, WR. 1977. Carbon-14: direct detection at natural concentrations. Science 198(4316):507–8.
Noakes, JE, Isbell, AF, Stipp, JJ, Hood, DW. 1963. Benzene synthesis by low temperature catalysis for radiocarbon dating. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 27(7):797804.
Noakes, JE, Kim, SM, Stipp, JJ. 1965. Chemical and counting advances in liquid scintillation radiocarbon dating. In: Chatters, RM, editor. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Radiocarbon and Tritium Dating. Pullman, Washington, 7–11 June 1965 (Conf. 650652). p 6898.
Noakes, JE, Neary, MP, Spaulding, JD. 1973. Tritium measurement with a new liquid scintillation counter. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 109(1):177–87.
Nydal, R. 1962. Proportional counting technique for radiocarbon measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments 33:1313–20.
Nydal, R, Lovseth, K. 1965. Distribution of radiocarbon from nuclear tests. Nature 206(4988):1029–31.
Nydal, R, Sigmond, RS. 1957. Radiocarbon dating in Trondheim. Applied Scientific Research B 6:393400.
Nydal, R, Gulliksen, S, Lövseth, K. 1977. Proportional counters and shielding for low-level gas counting. In: Povinec, P, Usačev, S, editors. Low-Radioactivity Measurements and Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference Bratislava, 1975. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatestvo. p 1322.
Oeschger, H. 1963. Low level counting methods. In: Radioactive Dating. Vienna: IAEA. p 13.
Oeschger, H, Loosli, HH. 1977. New developments in sampling and low level counting of natural radioactivity. In: Povinec, P, Usačev, S, editors. Low-Radioactivity Measurements and Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference High Tatras, 1975. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatestvo. p 1322.
Oeschger, H, Wahlen, M. 1975. Low-level counting techniques. Annual Review of Nuclear Science 25:423–63.
Ohkouchi, N, Eglinton, T, Hayes, J. 2003. Radiocarbon dating of individual fatty acids as a tool for refining Antarctic margin sediment chronologies. Radiocarbon 45(1):1724.
Oliphant, ML, Harteck, P, Rutherford, E. 1934. Transmutation effects observed with heavy hydrogen. Nature 133(3359):413.
Olsson, IU. 1957. A C14 dating station using the CO2 proportional counting method. Arkiv för Fysik 13:3760.
Olsson, IU, editor. 1970. Radiocarbon Variations and Absolute Chronology. Nobel Symposium 12, Uppsala, 11–15 August 1969. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Olsson, IU, Karlen, I, Turnbull, AH, Prosser, NJD. 1962. A determination of the half-life of 14C with a proportional counter. Arkiv för Fysik 22:237–55.
Oppo, DW, McManus, JF, Cullen, JL. 2003. Palaeo-oceanography: deepwater variability in the Holocene epoch. Nature 422(6929):277–8.
Östlund, HG. 1957. Stockholm natural radiocarbon measurements I. Science 126(3272):493–7.
Otlet, BI, Huxtable, G, Evans, GV, Humphreys, DG, Short, TD, Conchie, SJ. 1983. Development and operation of the Harwell small counter facility for the measurement of 14C in very small samples. Radiocarbon 25(2):565–75.
Patrut, A, von Reden, KF, Lowy, DA, Alberts, AA, Pohlman, JW, Wittmann, R, Gerlach, D, Xu, L, Mitchell, CS. 2007. Radiocarbon dating of a very large African baobab. Tree Physiology 27(11):1569–74.
Peacock, S. 2004. Debate over the ocean bomb radiocarbon sink: closing the gap. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18(2): GB2022, doi: 10.1029/2003GB002211.
Pearson, A, McNichol, AP, Schneider, RJ, von Reden, KF, Zheng, Y. 1998. Microscale AMS 14C measurement at NOSAMS. Radiocarbon 40(1):6175.
Pearson, A, McNichol, AP, Benitez-Nelson, BC, Hayes, JM, Eglinton, TI. 2001. Origins of lipid biomarkers in Santa Monica Basin surface sediment: a case study using compound-specific Δ14C analysis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65(18):3123–37.
Pearson, GW. 1979. Precise 14C measurement by liquid scintillation counting. Radiocarbon 21(1):121.
Plastino, W, Kaihola, L. 2006. Radiocarbon measurement by liquid scintillation spectrometry at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. In: Povinec, PP, Sanchez-Cabeza, JA, editors. Radionuclides in the Environments. Proceedings of the International Conference on Isotopes in Environmental Studies Monaco 2004. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p 520–8.
Polach, H, Calf, G, Harkness, D, Hogg, A, Kaihola, L, Robertson, S. 1988. Performance of new technology liquid scintillation counters for 14C dating. Nuclear Geophysics 2:75–9.
Povinec, P. 1972a. Very low background proportional counter for tritium dating. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 101(3):613–4.
Povinec, P. 1972b. Preparation of methane gas for proportional 3H and 14C counters. Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters 9:127–35.
Povinec, P. 1978. Multiwire proportional counters for low-level 14C and 3H measurements. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 156(3):441–6.
Povinec, P. 1979. A study of proportional counter optimisation for long-term counting. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 163(2–3):363–8.
Povinec, P. 1980. Proportional chambers for low level counting. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 176(1–2):111–7.
Povinec, P. 1981. Simultaneous activity and background measurement by the same detector. International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 32(10):729–32.
Povinec, P. 1992. 14C gas counting: Is there still a future? Radiocarbon 34(3):406–13.
Povinec, P, Šáro, Š, Chudý, M, Šeliga, M. 1968. The rapid method of radiocarbon counting in the atmosphere. International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 19(12):877–81.
Povinec, PP, Betti, M, Jull, AJT, Vojtyla, P. 2008. New isotope technologies in environmental physics. Acta Physica Slovaca 58:1154.
Pringle, RW, Turchinetz, W, Funt, BL. 1955. Liquid scintillation techniques for radiocarbon dating. Review of Scientific Instruments 26:859–65.
Pringle, RW, Turchinetz, W, Funt, BL, Danyluk, SS. 1957. Radiocarbon age estimates obtained by an improved liquid scintillation technique. Science 125(3237):6970.
Purser, KH. 1977. An Ultra-Sensitive Mass Spectrometry Apparatus. Filed 1 March 1976, US Patent No. 4,037,100.
Purser, KH, Handley, PR. 1978. A carbon-14 dating system. In: Gove, HE, editor. Proceedings of the First Conference on Radiocarbon Dating with Accelerators. Rochester: University of Rochester. p 165–86. Available at http://homepage.univie.ac.at/walter.kutschera/AMS/AMS-1.pdf.
Purser, KH, Liebert, RB, Litherland, AE, Beukens, RP, Gove, HE, Bennett, CL, Clover, MR, Sondheim, W. 1977. An attempt to detect stable N ions from a sputter ion source and some implications of the results for the design of tandems for ultra-sensitive carbon analysis. Revue de Physique Appliquée 12:1487–92.
Raeth, CH, Sevold, BJ, Pederson, CN. 1951. A multipleanode anticoincidence ring counter. Review of Scientific Instruments 22:461–3.
Rafter, TA, Fergusson, GJ. 1957. The atom bomb effect – recent increase in the carbon-14 content of the atmosphere, biosphere and surface waters of the ocean. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology B 38:871–3.
Rasmussen, TL, Oppo, DW, Thomsen, E, Lehman, SJ. 2003. Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events during the last 160,000 years. Paleoceanography 18(1): doi: 10.1029/2001PA000736.
Reddy, CM, Eglinton, TI, Hounshell, A, White, HK, Xu, L, Gaines, RB, Frysinger, GS. 2002a. The west Falmouth oil spill after thirty years: the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons in marsh sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 36(22):4754–60.
Reddy, CM, Pearson, A, Xu, L, McNichol, AP, Benner, BA Jr, Wise, SA, Klouda, GA, Currie, LA, Eglinton, TI. 2002b. Radiocarbon as a tool to apportion the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in environmental samples. Environmental Science & Technology 36(8):1774–82.
Reddy, CM, Xu, L, O'Neil, GW, Nelson, RK, Eglinton, TI, Faulkner, DJ, Norstrom, R, Ross, PS, Tittlemier, SA. 2004. Radiocarbon evidence for a naturally produced, bioaccumulating halogenated organic compound. Environmental Science & Technology 38(7):1992–7.
Reid, AF, Dunning, JR, Weinhouse, S, Grosse, AV. 1946. Half-life of 14C. Physical Review 70:431.
Reynolds, GT, Harrison, FB, Salvini, G. 1950. Liquid scintillation counters. Physical Review 78:488.
Roberts, ML, Schneider, RJ, von Reden, KF, Wills, JSC, Han, BX, Hayes, JM, Rosenheim, BE, Jenkins, WJ. 2007. Progress on a gas-accepting ion source for continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):83–7.
Robinson, LF, Adkins, JF, Keigwin, LD, Southon, J, Fernandez, DP, Wang, S-L, Scheirer, DS. 2005. Radiocarbon variability in the western North Atlantic during the last deglaciation. Science 310(5753):1469–73.
Rosenheim, BE, Swart, PK. 2007. Caribbean sclerosponge radiocarbon measurements re-interpreted in terms of U/Th age models. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):474–8.
Ruben, S, Kamen, MD. 1941. Long-lived radioactive carbon: 14C. Physical Review 59:349–54.
Russell, JM, Johnson, TC. 2007. Little ice age drought in equatorial Africa: intertropical convergence zone migrations and El Niño–Southern oscillation variability. Geology 35(1):21–4.
Russell, JM, Johnson, TC, Talbot, MR. 2003. A 725 yr cycle in the climate of central Africa during the late Holocene. Geology 31(8):677–80.
Rutherford, E. 1937. The search for the isotopes of hydrogen and helium of mass 3. Nature 140(3538):303–5.
Schlosser, P, Kromer, B, Ekwurzel, B, Bonisch, G, McNichol, A, Schneider, R, von Reden, K, Östlund, HG, Swift, JH. 1997. The first trans-Arctic 14C section: comparison of the mean ages of the deep waters in the Eurasian and Canadian basins of the Arctic Ocean. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 123(1–4):431–7.
Schneider, RJ, Hayes, JM, von Reden, KF, McNichol, AP, Eglinton, TI, Wills, JSC. 1998. Target preparation for continuous flow accelerator mass spectrometry. Radiocarbon 40(1):95102.
Schnitzer, RW, Aberth, H, Anbar, M. 1975. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ASMS Annual Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics. p 479–81.
Schoch, H, Bruns, M, Münnich, KO, Münnich, M. 1980. A multicounter system for high precision carbon-14 measurements. Radiocarbon 22(2):442–7.
Schwartzschild, AZ, Thieberger, P, Cumming, JB. 1977. Bulletin of the American Physical Society 22:94.
Scott, EM, editor. 2003. The Third International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (TIRI) and the Fourth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (FIRI), 1990–2002. Results, analyses, and conclusions. Radiocarbon 45(2):135408.
Skog, G. 2007. The single stage AMS machine at Lund University: status report. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):16.
Slater, GF, White, HK, Eglinton, TI, Reddy, CM. 2005. Determination of microbial carbon sources in petroleum contaminated sediments using molecular 14C analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 39(8):2552–8.
Slater, GF, Nelson, RK, Kile, BM, Reddy, CM. 2006. Intrinsic bacterial biodegradation of petroleum contamination demonstrated in situ using natural abundance, molecular-level 14C analysis. Organic Geochemistry 37:981–9.
Smittenberg, RH, Baas, M, Green, MJ, Hopmans, EC, Schouten, S, Sinninghe Damsté, JS. 2005. Pre- and post-industrial environmental changes as revealed by the biogeochemical sedimentary record of Drammensfjord, Norway. Marine Geology 214(1–3):177200.
Southon, JR, Nelson, DE, Vogel, JS. 1990. Injection systems for AMS: simultaneous versus sequential. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 52(3–4):370–4.
Srdoč, D, Planinič, J, Obelić, B. 1977. A multiwire proportional counter for tritium and radiocarbon measurements. In: Povinec, P, Usačev, S, editors. Low-Radioactivity Measurements and Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference, High Tatras, 1975. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatestvo. p 6770.
Srdoč, D, Obelić, B, Horvatinčić, N. 1983. Radiocarbon dating of millimole-sized gaseous samples. Radiocarbon 25(2):485–92.
Starik, LE, Arslanov, KA, Zharkov, AP. 1961. Radiokhimia 2:67
Starik, LE, Arslanov, KA, Klener, IR. 1963. Radiokhimia 5:198.
Stephenson, EJ, Alvarez, LW, Clark, DJ, Gough, RA, Holley, RA, Jain, WR, Muller, RA. 1977. Bulletin of the American Physical Society 22:579.
Stoenner, RW, Schaeffer, OA, Davis, R Jr. 1960. Meteorites as space probes for testing the spatial constancy of cosmic radiation. Journal of Geophysical Research 65(10):3025–34.
Stuiver, M. 1978. Carbon-14 dating: a comparison of beta and ion counting. Science 202(4370):881–3.
Stuiver, M, van der Plicht, J, editors. 1998. INTCAL98 Calibration Issue. Radiocarbon 40(3):1041–164.
Stuiver, M, Robinson, SW, Yang, IC. 1979. 14C dating to 60,000 years BP with proportional counters. In: Berger, R, Suess, HE, editors. Radiocarbon Dating. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference Los Angeles and La Jolla, 1976. Berkeley: University of California Press. p 202–15.
Stuiver, M, Long, A, Kra, RS, editors. 1993. Calibration 1993. Radiocarbon 35(1):1244.
Suess, HE. 1954. Natural radiocarbon measurements by acetylene counting. Science 120(3105):57.
Suess, HE. 1965. Secular variations of the cosmic-ray-produced carbon 14 in the atmosphere and their interpretations. Journal of Geophysical Research 70(23):5937–52.
Suess, HE. 1980. The radiocarbon record in tree rings of the last 8000 years. Radiocarbon 22(2):200–9.
Suess, HE. 1986. Secular variations of cosmogenic 14C on Earth: their discoveries and interpretation. Radiocarbon 28(2A):259–65.
Suter, M, Balzer, R, Bonani, G, Wölfli, W. 1984. A fast beam pulsing system for isotope ratio measurements. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 5(2):242–6.
Suter, M, Döbeli, M, Grajcar, M, Müller, A, Stocker, M, Sun, G, Synal, H-A, Wacker, L. 2007. Advances in particle identification in AMS at low energies. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):165–72.
Sweeney, C, Gloor, E, Jacobson, AR, Key, RM, McKinley, G, Sarmiento, JL, Wanninkhof, R. 2007. Constraining global air-sea gas exchange for CO2 with recent bomb 14C measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB2015, doi: 10.1029/2006GB002784.
Synal, H-A, Jacob, S, Suter, M. 2000. The PSI/ETH small radiocarbon system. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 172(1–4):17.
Synal, H-A, Stocker, M, Suter, M. 2007. MICADAS: a new compact radiocarbon AMS system. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):713.
Tamers, MA. 1965. Routine carbon-14 dating using liquid scintillation techniques. Acta Cientifica Venezolana 16:156–62.
Tamers, MA, Pearson, FJ. 1965. Isotope effect in the benzene synthesis for radiocarbon dating. Nature 205(4977):1205–7.
Tamers, MA, Stipp, JJ, Collier, J. 1961. High sensitivity detection of naturally occurring radiocarbon—I Chemistry of the counting sample. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 24(3–4):266–76.
Tanner, RL, Parkhurst, WJ, McNichol, AP. 2004. Fossil sources of ambient aerosol carbon based on 14C measurements. Aerosol Science and Technology 38(12):133–9.
Tanner, SD, Baranov, VI, Bandura, DM. 2002. Reaction cells and collision cells for ICP-MS: a tutorial review. Spectrochimica Acta B 57(9):1361–452.
Tans, PP, de Jong, AFM, Mook, WG, Hut, G. 1982. High accuracy carbon-14 counting and the application to the radiocarbon calibration curve. In: Povinec, P, editor. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Low-Level Counting. Volume 1. Bratislava: Veda Publishers. p 155–69.
Teuten, EL, Xu, L, Reddy, CM. 2005. Two abundant bioaccumulated halogenated compounds are natural products. Science 307(5711):917–20.
Vogel, JS, Southon, JR, Nelson, DE. 1987. Catalyst and binder effects in the use of filamentous graphite for AMS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 29(1–2):50–6.
von Reden, KF, McNichol, AP, Pearson, A, Schneider, RJ. 1998. 14C AMS measurements of <100 μg samples with a high-current system. Radiocarbon 40(1):247–53.
von Reden, KF, Peden, JC, Schneider, RJ, Bellino, M, Donoghue, J, Elder, KL, Gagnon, AR, Long, P, McNichol, AP, Morin, T, Stuart, D, Hayes, JM, Key, RM. 1999. High-precision measurements of 14C as a circulation tracer in the Pacific, Indian, and Southern oceans with accelerator mass spectrometry. AIP Conference Proceedings 473:410–21.
von Reden, K, Roberts, M, Han, B, Schneider, R, Wills, J. 2007. Searching for a suitable gas ion source for 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. AIP Conference Proceedings 925(1):341–5.
von Reden, KF, Roberts, ML, Jenkins, WJ, Rosenheim, BE, McNichol, AP, Schneider, RJ. 2008. Software development for continuous-gas-flow AMS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266(10):2233–7.
Wakeham, SG, McNichol, AP, Kostka, JE, Pease, TK. 2006. Natural-abundance radiocarbon as a tracer of assimilation of petroleum carbon by bacteria in salt marsh sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(7):1761–71.
Wanninkhof, R. 1992. Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(C5):7373–82.
Watson, JT, Roe, DK, Selenkow, HA. 1965. Iodine-129 as a “non-radioactive” tracer. Radiation Research 26:159–63.
Weidman, C, Jones, G. 1993. A shell-derived time history of bomb 14C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 98(C8):14,57788.
Weinman, JA, Cameron, JR. 1956. Negative hydrogen ion source. Review of Scientific Instruments 27:288–93.
White, HK, Reddy, CM, Eglinton, TI. 2005. Isotopic constraints on the fate of petroleum residues sequestered in salt marsh sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 39(8):2545–51.
Zencak, Z, Klanova, J, Holoubek, I, Gustafsson, Ö. 2007. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 41(11):3850–5.